B. Proposed work
In this paper our system divided in to following parts:
• Data Gathering
• Wireless data transmission
• Database
• Automation irrigation (user inter face)

In the part of data Gathering we using different kinds of field sensors like soil moisture sensors , temperature and humidity sensors and light sensors, and also having Arduino microcontroller that control all the sensors and sending data to wireless data transmission part for the data transmission to database and database is the main back end part of the system that store and retrieve all the information about the moisture, temperature, and humidity at the surroundings of the soil and environment. User access the information by using internet at any place from the database. Because database is on the cloud.
This paper collects information about the hardware and software that are used to create this system that is use full for human and provide fewer human efforts for doing cultivation. We studied about the microcontroller circuits that control other sensors like moisture sensor, temperature and humidity sensor. The sensors send the data to the microcontroller and microcontroller send data through the GSM or Wi-Fi module on the database that is connected with the internet and the data accessed by the famers by using the internet in their personal computer and smart phones with the help of graphical interface. This kind of system can be used in area where the water level is to low and much more difficulty to provide proper irrigation. By making use of Arduino that provide controls to the sensors by using some programming. Farmer can set different kind of threshold values for the different kind of seeds and different kind soils according to their necessity. The Arduino connected with wireless medium like GSM or Bluetooth module. And the main thing is that user interface is to good by providing graphical interface and giving appropriate information to the farmers. The Bluetooth module neglecting cost by conveying with microcontroller and sensors when the application is in a restricted area of few meters.
A. Overall design of the system
The Arduino Mega 2560 is one of the popular microcontrollers in the IOT industries. It is user convenient and easier to handle. The coding or programming is also easy because it used machine level code. The code is easily modified due to the flash memory technology. It is used in home automation, security, industry automations.
Second thing is used GSM module SIM900A that is much more convenient to send data to cloud. It will consist different features like “Quad-Band 850/900/1800/1900 MHz”, GPRS multi-slot “class 10/B, GPRS mobile station” class B. that is controlled by AT commands, supply voltage range is about 3.2 to 4.8V. 2
Soil moisture sensor can read the amount of moisture present in the soil surrounding it. It is a low-tech sensor, but ideal for monitoring an urban garden, or your pet plant’s water level.
A Submersible pump is a device which has a hermetically sealed motor close-coupled to the pump body. The whole assembly is submerged in the fluid to be pumped.it usually operated between 3v to 12v.
Relay switch can be divided into two parts: input and output. The input section has coil which generates magnetic field when a small voltage from a electronic circuit is applied to it. When the operating voltage is applied the relay, coil gets energized and the COM changes contact to NO.
B. Material and methodology
In smart farming unit is composed with in-field sensors, GSM transmitter and a power source. Each element is primarily based on the Arduino mega 2560 microcontroller that control all the sensors like moisture of soil according to given threshold value, water present in the soil and temperature ; humidity of the environment. 4
Description Part Name
Microcontroller Arduino Mega 2560
Transmitter GSM Module sim900A
Soil Moisture sensor VH400
PIR Sensor SEN-13285
Buzzer Common
Miscellaneous (connectors, relay, Batteries etc.)
C. Equations
In this paper I am using dynamic equation that will change the threshold value according to the crop need and soil dependent.
Equation for soil moisture calculation.
If (soil_moisture_value