INTRODUCTION Research Statement- TC 1

INTRODUCTION Research Statement- TC 1.3 Research Statement f C l 2 Relationship between Usage of social media and Students Performance at Secondary Level. In current era of modern technology it has been observed that use of social media seems to be essential part of everyday life for the sake of information, knowledge and entertainment. Despite of the age factor, economy resources, and region everyone is using this new source of communication media. Likewise, students of every age is also now becoming a part of this social media community for sharing of educational material and to keep abreast of daily life updates/ activities. Social sites such as YouTube came out in 2005, creating an entirely new way for people to communicate and share with each other across great distances. By 2006, Facebook and Twitter both became available to users throughout the world. These sites remain some of the most popular social networks on the Internet. The internet has emerged as the most effective means of disseminating information. It is worth mentioning that social networking platforms such as Facebook, has been in use since its beginning. Initially created for Harvard University students in 2004, as a method of socializing, this forum was opened for use by the general public in 2006. Facebook is now one of the best known social networking sites used by people of all ages and professions. Several researchers believe that students academic performance have deteriorated tremendously due to the recurring usage of Facebook while studying. It is accessible through computer, laptop, and small portable devices (tablets and cellular phones). Facebook easily allows its users to set up and maintain personal profile pages for the purpose of connecting, interacting, and sharing personal views and content with other individuals, groups and communities online. On average, there were 1.01 billion daily active users globally by September 20151. In figure one we can see that students and teacher both are busy in using Facebook 2. INCLUDEPICTURE https//www.techlearning.com/.image/t_share/MTUyMTIxNjQ1NzI2OTY3Njkw/teacher-advice-to-students-on-social-media-use-promo-image.jpg MERGEFORMATINET Fig1.Use of social media in classroom Apropos of above, it is important to mention that although this media has multiple benefits, however, being young and immature age of students, especially, secondary level students it is also observed that this media has also some negative impacts on the studies of these students. Most of the students spends their time only for chatting and sharing irrelevant information through these social sites i.e. following of irrelevant groups, social unknown chatting rooms and sharing of personal information on these sites. Thus, we can conclude that appropriate study on Relationship between Usage of social media and Students Performance at Secondary Level deemed appropriate. Form the figure2 3 given below below we can see that we are surrounded by SNS. INCLUDEPICTURE http//sponsor-ed.com.au/uploaded_files/media/enl_social_media1.jpg MERGEFORMATINET Fig 2 Trap of Social Media Hypothesis There is relationship between the use of social media and academic performance Objectives TC 1.4 Objectives f C l 2 Main objectives of proposed topic are To examine the impact of social media on academic performance among the students. To identify the benefits obtained from using the social media. Chapter 02 Literature Review Related Work In this section we will explore some of the literature or the work done on the usage of social media and its impacts on students performance. It includes a brief description of social media and approaches to measures the impact of social media. Some of them are explained below The Impact of Facebook Usage on Academic Performance This study The Impact of Facebook Usage on Academic Performance is presented by Dr. Sedigheh Moghavvemi, Dr. Azmin Azliza Aziz, Professor Ainin Sulaiman and Dr. Phoong Seuk Wai. The aim was to examine how usage of Facebook affect students academic performance. It explored behavioural factors affecting students utilizing Facebook. Questionnaires method was used to conduct the mentioned above study. In this literature it was described that at the start of Social Networking Sites (SNS) such as Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter attracted millions of users across the world. SNS are fast becoming essential to the daily lives of its users. E.g. Facebook is the most prevalent and heavily-used social network site among students, which consist of a large and varied group, representing all demographic regions. Research also showed that excessive texting, especially on social network sites, is associated with unhealthy behaviours among the younger and immature generation, including higher levels of stress, poor academics scores, poor sleep patterns, and parental permissiveness. This research was conducted in Malaysia, which is among the top five countries in terms of the number of Facebook accounts created. Most university students owns their Facebook accounts, and they spend a lot of hours on it updating their status and interconnecting with friends. There is two research questions that were answered in this literature review what is the purpose of using Facebook among Malaysian students And what is the effect of using Facebook upon the students academic performance Social networking sites are used by individuals for various purposes, such as communication, work related activities, and socialization. Students use social websites for pass time, relax/escape, entertainment, socialization, social information, habitual use and academics performance. Many students have a habit of spending their free time in surfing SNS, they are incapable of expressing themselves, experience greater assimilation with their peers, making new friends, and maintain a continuous exchange of knowledge and information with their online friends. On the whole, people who use SNS such as Facebook tend to share feelings and photographs with friends and family. For students, communicating through Facebook for comforting or escaping from study routine could elevate levels of satisfaction with family and friends, resulting in a pleasant life and enhancing academic achievement. Literature shows that most people use Facebook for entertainment and recreation such as most of the users accessed Facebook for recreational and entertainment purposes. There are also many users who use it to share fun and amusing activities with others users. Indeed, people are likely to upload materials that are related to entertainment in Facebook as well. Facebook is an effective socialization tool. Many users reported that their main reasons of joining Facebook and spending time on it is to stay in touch with old friends and maintain or reinforce relationship with colleagues. Besides this, SNS could serve as a nominal platform to solicit universities alumni in order to maintain strong connections with the total of their large corresponding alumni. These sites provide a low-cost and additional means of communication for universities to assist alumni in maintaining a strong network connection even after completion of their studies. Engaging in social information-seeking behaviours on Facebook, such as wanting to learn more about people with whom the user are connected to offline, is closely related to increased social capital. Facebook is a valuable tool that collects information from several different Facebook users. Online social networks (OSNs), such as Facebook, provides opportunities for its users to obtain detailed information about their contacts, including personal background, interests, music tastes, and location. It is also plausible that Facebook Provides a strong platform to expand knowledge, for example, through reading friends shared posts about a news feature or local event. Previous studies showed that there are two main types of user for SNS, which are habitual users and compulsive use. A habit crops up when an individual involves in a particular behaviour without his conscious knowledge, attentiveness, or purpose. It is closely related to routine activities, which is associated with long-term involvement with a behaviour. However, repetitive behaviours are presences of a mental construct of habit rather than its defining quality, even though both are highly correlated. Facebook Intensity (FBI) in SNS can be affiliated with habits via overlaps in their operational definitions. Previous research revealed that most students use Facebook while studying, which could negatively affect their academic performance due to the distraction afforded by Facebook. It has been observed that Facebook users reported spending less time studying compared to non-Facebook users. Higher rates of Internet usage during classroom periods are associated with lower exam scores. There is a substantial negative relationship between the use of Facebook and academic performance. A study on university students found that frequently checking updates on Facebook is negatively associated with their engagement in educationally relevant activities. Based on college students response to a survey, it was discovered that non-Facebook users had higher Grade Point Averages (GPAs) compared to Facebook users who spend a lot of their time on Facebook. On the basis of positive relationship between Facebook usage academic performance they formed research model of this study At the end of this study the findings show that passing time, relax/escape, and entertainment are the main motives of using Facebook among Malaysian students. Surprisingly, socialization and social information are not the factors of using Facebook amongst Malaysian students. This study also indicated that many other factors also play important role in academic performance, and using Facebook may not be the only factor that negatively affect the students academic performance 4. Use of Social Media and its Impact on Academic Performance of Tertiary Institution Students A Study of Students of Koforidua Polytechnic, Ghana This journal was published in 2015 by M. Owusu-Acheaw Agatha Gifty Larson. The study wanted to assess students use of social media and its effect on academic performance of tertiary institutions students in Ghana with a focus on Koforidua Polytechnic students. Questionnaire was used for collecting data. Out of one thousand five hundred and seventy-eight copies of the questionnaire distributed, one thousand five hundred and eight were retrieved which represented a response rate of 95.5 . The study revealed that majority of the respondents had mobile phones which also had Internet facility on them and had knowledge of the existence of many social media sites. The study further confirmed that most of the respondents visit their social media sites using their phones and spend between thirty minutes to three hours in daily routine. In addition the study revealed that the use of social media sites had affected academic performance of the respondents negatively and that there was direct relationship between the use of social media sites and academic performance. The study recommends among others that, students with mobile phones having internet facility should be encouraged to use it to supplement their research in the library rather than the usual chatting with friends all the time. Since the use of social media sites had great impact on the academic work of students negatively there is the dire need for the complete guidance of students to the availability of novels and other information resources or materials that can help them academically and raise their scores. The survey method was used to solicit data and information from a sample of students of Koforidua Polytechnic during lecture hours of the second semester of 2013/14 academic year. After the collection of data, the results were analysed with the use of the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The response rate was 95.5, which was representative of the sample. Respondents were given between twenty to thirty minutes to complete the questionnaires. The study was conducted to examine the impact of students use of social media sites on their academic performance. The study revealed that majority of the respondents had mobile phones with internet facility and had knowledge of the existence of social media sites. As a result they visit their social media sites and spend between thirty munities to three hours every day. In addition, the study revealed that the use of social media had affected academic performance of the respondents negatively and further confirmed that there was a strong relationship between the use of social media and academic performance. Most of the respondents confirmed that they use the social media sites to chat than for academic purpose 5. Social networking sites on students academic Performance and the perspective faculty members of Periyar University, Salem This study was conducted by SUDHA S Dr, KAVITHA, and ES in which the main purpose was to study the faculty perception of SNS on academic performance of students. The study also focuses to assess the positive and negative impacts of SNS on Students academic performance. A structured questionnaire designed and was randomly distributed to 110 faculty members of Periyar University, Salem. After collecting the data, SPSS 16 Software was use for the analysis. Percentage analysis, Mean, SD, KMO and Bartletts Test and MANCOVA test used to show the relationship between variable. Some number of faculty members felt that the infatuation to SNSs is challenging issue that affects the students academic life and others mentioned that SNS help in the students studies because the student can discuss their assignments with friends very easily and these are also free of cost such as Facebook, YouTube, tweeter etc. The data collected from 59 of male faculty members and 41 of female faculty members. The data for the study collected from 54 Assistant Professors, 35 Associate Professors and 21 Professors from selected departments of Periyar University. It is noticed that majorities (60) of the faculty members were belongs to 41-45 age group. Around 27 of the faculty members were belongs to belong to below 40 years and 13 of the faculty members were belongs to above 45. More number of faculty members felt that the Addiction to SNSs is problematic issue that affects the students academic life and Using SNSs require spending money and are wastage of time and by this way it will affect the students academic life. Less number of faculty members mentioned about the influence of SNS cause academic performance of students negatively, because they distract from the students studies. While in case of positive impacts of SNS on students academic performance, more number of faculty members mentioned that help of SNS in the students studies because the student can discuss their assignments with friends and less number of faculty members stated about the improvement of the interaction with classmates, lecturers and other subject experts by SNS. Bartletts Test of Sphericity and KMO test in this study reveals that There is statistically significant interrelationship between faculty members perceptions on negative and positive effects of SNS on students academic performance. The study also revealed that there is a significant relationship between gender, age and concern department of the faculty members and their opinion on negative perceptions of SNS on students academic performance. However there is no association between the designation of faculty members and their opinion on negative perceptions of SNS on students performance. It is shows that all the negative judgements is similar on SNS 6. Social Media Network Participation and Academic Performance in Senior High Schools in Ghana This e-journal was published in 2015 by Jeffrey Mingle Musah Adams in which social media network participation and academic performance in senior high schools is seen. Objectives of the Study were to identify social network sites and their usage among students. To find out how senior high school students connected and participated on Social Media and also to ascertain the amount of time spent by students on social media networks. It is also look into the effects of social media on students grammar and spelling in academic work along with the effects of social network participation on the students academic performance finally to make appropriate recommendations based on the findings of the study. The study used the cross-sectional survey method to find out how social network participation affects academic performance of students in SHS. The study also employed the questionnaire as the data collection instrument for the study. Four Senior High Schools were selected for the study. Also, these schools are mixed schools with both day and boarding facilities. The total population for the study was Five Thousand Two Hundred and Forty Nine (5249). The total sample size for the study was 526 (10).The stratified sampling method was adopted for the study. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data collected. The descriptive analysis tools in the SPSS were employed to develop tables and frequencies which was constructively analysed. The findings of the study showed that WhatsApp and Facebook had the highest number of users among the respondents. It was also revealed from the findings of the study that the major reasons why most students used WhatsApp and Facebook was because most of their friends used it, they were cheaper and they could as well chat with multiple friends at the same time. The issue of time on social media networks has been one of the most controversial ones as many researchers have given various views on the subject. One of the main objectives of the study was to find out the amount of time invested by respondents on social network sites as these could influence the amount of time they had for their studies. The study also revealed an improvement in the reading skills of the students who participated on social media networks. This was confirmed by a high number of respondents. Findings of the study revealed that majority of the respondents saw a drop in their grades when they started participating on social networks. That is, when they compared their grades before and after participating on social media networks, they saw a drop in their performance. The study revealed that students used social networks in sharing education materials and discussing examination questions. The study has revealed that despite the benefits that come with the participation of students on social media networks, it could impact negatively on their academic performance if not used properly. A lot of benefits abound in the use of social media networks such as sharing information and ideas, improving reading skills etc. Therefore, social media networks compete with academic work for students attention. Therefore it is prime responsibility of the student to make the right decision in relation to the use of social media networks 7. Impact of Social Media Usage on Academic Performance of University Students Study conducted by Hira Hasnain, Anum Nasreen and Hamza Ijaz in which they study the relationship between the social media and students academic performance in Pakistan. In light of this, their objective was to investigate the effect of social media on academic performance of students and to conclude whether it has a negative or positive relationship with learning outcomes. They planned to conduct research in order to learn how the use of Social Networking Sites (SNS) has an impact on a students academic performance. Academic performance is the dependent variable of our research and is defined as the performance a student has maintained in his/her academic career. Academic performance at university level is considered up to the mark if the student has persistently maintained his GPA. However, external factors may effect on students academic performance such as social media usage. Internet usage has also become an alarming issue in Pakistans society as the massive availability of social media has affected many sectors of the society. According to Statistics around 20,431,000 Pakistanis use internet on a regular basis and in 2011 1.9 million Pakistani used the popular social media site such as Twitter which contributed to 1 percent of the total Twitter users (DAWN, 2011). Usage of internet has also been associated with physical and mental health as well as can have adverse impact on family life. Excessive usage of internet can become an addiction especially among students and it can cause academic problems. Internet addiction can cause a fall in time spent on studies, major drop in grades, low interest in extracurricular activities and lack of interest in classes. Moreover, internet addiction among children has been associated with psychological and mental problems such as anxiety, depression and the feeling of loneliness. The survey research study method was employed and a structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the desired sample. The data was collected from 171 students who were currently enrolled in the 7 known universities and other institutions classified in our research simply as other in the twin cities. All the responses were collected online and were accessed using 5-point Likert-type scale The results shows that the more students spend time on social media the poor they perform in university at a low level of significance. Social media has an inverse relationship with academic performance. If students spend maximum time on social media, then their academic performance will fall considerably proving the inverse relationship. This research has also examined and evaluated the underlying impact of social media usage on students academic performance. With advancement in technology and increase in internet usage, social media has become a part of our daily lives. Our analysis was set out with the objective to assess students attitudes and behaviour patterns towards social media usage. As results suggest, social media has an inverse relationship with academic performance. Social media platform is a vast field where communication barriers are diminishing and access to data has grown significantly. If social media is used in a positive manner it can help students and youth in gaining knowledge that can be used to enhance their academic performance 8. CHAPTER 03 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Introduction This chapter presents the method and procedure that was applied in this study. It was organized under the following sub-headings Research Design, Research Method, and Population of the Study, Sample and Sampling Technique, Research Instrument, Validity of the Instrument, Reliability of the Instrument Research Design The research design adopted for the study was a descriptive survey. This design is considered apt because it enables the researcher to generate data through the standardized collection procedures based on highly structured research instrument(s) and well defined study concepts and related variables. This ongoing research is based on observation, field surveys or interview conducted. It is basically inquiring a public issue of usage of social media and its impacts on students performance. So it can be concluded as it is a qualitative research in which we will find out the impacts of social media. This study is designed as a quantitative study, aiming to understand the impact of social media on students performance at secondary level. This relationship will be studied on the students of private and government school mix together. Among the quantitative research method, surveys research method will be used to conduct the study. Questionnaires will be filled out by the students of the selected schools. This research in conducted on purely primary data source which will be gathered during research process. . Research Method As it is quantitative research study, so surveys is the best suitable method to collect and process the data from primary resource. Population Total 150 students were selected to fill the questionnaire from 2 government school and 2 private schools at secondary level. Sampling Technique Systematic Random Sample technique is used in this product where there will be interval of 3 to calculate 50 sample out of total 150 students. Sample size total of 150 students 50 will be the selected for further analysis to find out the desired results. Instrumentation The survey research study method was employed and a structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the desired sample. The data was collected from 150 secondary level students who were currently enrolled in the 2 Government schools and 2 private schools in KPK. A well-constructed and self-developed questionnaire titled Social Media and Academic Performance of Students at Secondary Level Questionnaire (SMAAPOSASL) is used to get the desired information from the students. The questionnaire is divided into two sections (A and B). Section A is for collection of information on personal data of respondents while Section B is consist of questionnaire of close ended questions. A questionnaire comprised of total 20 questions have been asked in order to meet research objectives. This questionnaire is approves by the supervisor after thorough review. Time frame Almost 4 to 5 months are required to conduct this study on the relationship between social media usage and its impacts on students performance. CHAPTER 4 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS Introduction This chapter presents the results and discussions from this study in three sections under the following subheadings Presentation of Demographic Data Analysis of Data and Testing of Hypotheses Discussion of Findings SECTION A Presentation of Demographic Data Table 1 Presentation of Demographic Data. GenderFrequencyPercentage ()Male8959.33Female6140.67Total150100AgeFrequencyPercentage ()1 to 15 years11576.672 to 30 years3523.33Total150100Class /GradeFrequencyPercentage ()9th8254.6710th 6845.33Total150100 The table 1 shows the demographic data of the participants in which 89 representing (59.33) of the respondents were Male and 61 representing (40.67 were Female 115 which represents (76.67) of the respondents were between 1to 15 years, 35 which represents (23.33) were between 2-30 Years. 82(54.67) of the respondents are from grade 9, 68 (45.33) from grade 10. Table 2 Descriptive Statistics on the Relationship between Usage of Social Media and Students Performance at Secondary Level 4.60.51817Boy and girls spend time on social media according to their age.4.63.48518Social media is not relevant to people of older generation2.46.93119Social media is not relevant to people of older generation.2.13.80520The younger generation are the most active users of social media.4.69.463The table 2 illustrated the descriptive statistics of the variable Relationship between Usage of Social Media and Students Performance at Secondary Level. Mean scores and standard deviations were calculated for the responses. All the items reported the mean score to be above 1 which showed that the students agreed to the statements that there is strong relationship between usage of social media and students performance at secondary level. The highest mean score of 4.69 was reported on the relationship between usage of social media and students performance at secondary level questionnaire. The item was The younger generation are the most active users of social media. It shows that todays young generation spends most of their time on social media. The item with the lowest mean score was I will not perform well in my academics even if I stop using social media. with a mean score of 1.24 and standard deviation of .620. SECTION B ANALYSIS OF DATA AND TESTING OF HYPOTHESES In testing the hypotheses stated, the Independent t-test is used to measure the significance. Independent Sample t-test for Gender Table 3 Independent Sample t-test for Grades Table5 Grade Level of the students who use social media SECTION C DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS Hypothesis There is relationship between the use of social media and academic performance From Table 2 we can verify that mean value for Addiction to online social networks is a problematic issue that affects my academic life is very high which is 4.59 and SD is only .493. It shows that use of social media is becoming a problem for the students as it affects their studies. For the question There is no improvement in my grades since I became engaged into these social networking sites mean value is 4.61 which is also very high and it give weightage to our assumption that there is strong relationship between usage of social media and students performance. Excess use of these sites e.g. Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat etc. not only effects their performance badly but also affect their health as well. The finding of this study shows that Students exposure to social media network has significant influence on students academic performance. This study also correspond with the findings of Olubiyi (2012) and Osharive (2015)which states that these days students are so engrossed in the social media that they are almost 24 hours online. Even in classrooms and lecture theatres, it has been observed that some students are always busy pinging, 2going or Facebooking, while lectures are on. Times that ought be channeled towards learning, academic research and innovating have been crushed by the passion for meeting new friends online, and most times busy discussing trivial issues. Hence most students academics suffer setback as a result of distraction from the social media. CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS In this chapter, the summary of the study, recommendations, suggestions and conclusions are presented. Summary This research study investigated the Relationship between Usage of social media and Students Performance at Secondary Level. The quantitative study was conducted to see the impact of social media on students academic performance. A sample of 150 students is selected from 2 Govt. and 2 private school. Systematic Random Sample technique is used in this product where there will be interval of 3 to calculate 50 sample out of total 150 students. A self-developed Likert-type scale Questionnaire thoroughly scrutinized by the project supervisor is used for data collection. The demographic data is analysed with the use of independent t-test and the hypotheses is tested using the descriptive statistics. The results found shows that students addictiveness to social network has a significant impact on their academic performance Use of social media has significant influence on the academic performance of the students. Excess use of social media has negative effects on students performance. The findings of this study shows that our young generation is more active in using social media but it is in a negative way in which they not only lost their concentration on studies but also indulge in undesirable behaviour. It effects their academics performance and this side effects are long term in destructing their career as well. Conclusion The results from the findings of this study reveals that, though social media have negative effects on students academic performance such as lack of privacy, distracting their concentration from studies, wasting their productive time, but it also have advantageous point as well and can be used appropriately by keeping check and balance in their study routine, such as group discussion, sharing of information with peers and keep in contact with classmates etc. the findings shows that social media participation is negatively related with students outcome. This study also suggests that all the students are to advise how to use this free medium for their optimum productive activities. Parents should keep an eye on their children that how much time they are spending on the internet and how it is effecting their studies. The Government should also put in place adequate control measures to regulate use of SNS among students and teachers. Recommendations In the light of this study, the following recommendations are made Students should be educated on the influence of social media on their academics performance. Teacher should ensure the positive use of social media to improve students performance. Students should be monitored by both the teachers and parents on how they use these sites. The students should keep a balance between mere web surfing and academic related activities. More attention should be directed towards their studies. Generalizability of the Research Findings The population of this study consisted of only secondary level students. The study can be generalized to the students in in similar schools and students of secondary because they share the same characteristics and access over the internet. This study serves as a basis for further research study on Social media and the academic performance of students. Similar studies should be conducted at all level of educational institutions so as to bring about improvement in the academic performance of students through the use of Social media networks and to create more awareness among students, by avoiding interruption which leads to distraction from their academic related activities. . REFERENCES Facebook News Room, Company Info Stats. HYPERLINK http//www.newsroom http//www.newsroom. Fb.com/company-info. https//www.techlearning.com/.image/c_limit2Ccs_srgb2Cq_autogood2Cw_700/MTUyMTIxNjQ1NDU1Nzc5NzIy/image-placeholder-title.webp HYPERLINK http//sponsor-ed.com.au/uploaded_files/media/enl_social_media1.jpg http//sponsor-ed.com.au/uploaded_files/media/enl_social_media1.jpg Dr. Sedigheh Moghavvemi, Dr. Azmin Azliza Aziz, Professor Ainin Sulaiman Dr. Phoong Seuk Wai(2015). The Impact of Facebook Usage on Academic Performance. M. Owusu-Acheaw , Agatha Gifty Larson.(2015), use of social media and its impact on academic performance of tertiary institution students a study of students of koforidua polytechnic, ghana, Journal of Education and Practice,Vol.6, No.6, 2015 Sudha S, Kavitha ES Dr(2016), the effect of social networking on students academic performance the perspective of faculty members of periyar university, salem, Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal) Jeffrey Mingle, Musah Adams(2015), social media network participation and academic performance in senior high schools in Ghana, Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal). Hasnain, Anum. Hamza. 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