level 3 health and social care
TASK 4: Analyze how two body systems interrelate to perform named function/functions. Discuss the role of energy and explained the physiology of two named body systems in relation to energy metabolism in the body.

Molly Dilkes
STUDENT ID: 409719

Energy law: Energy can be clearly defined as the capacity to do work.

The conservation law: Energy is unable to be created nor destroyed, however is can be transferred or transformed from one form to another (this includes transforming into/ from mass, as matter) as the total amount of energy in a closed system never changes.

Energy in a system is able to be changed so that it exists in a different state. Energy is in multiple states and is able to be used to do many varieties of physical work, energy also may be used in natural processes, or to provide some service to society.

Energy metabolism is a set of life-sustaining chemical conversions within cells of living organisms. These reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structure and respond to their environments. Metabolism may sometimes refer to chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, this includes digestion and transportation of substances into and between different cells. In this case the reactions within the cells are called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. Your metabolism consists of both catabolism and anabolism, which are the building up and breaking down of substances. Energy metabolism takes in nutrients, oxygen and glucose as well as delivering the nutrients to our organs. In order for our body to function we need energy, as it helps to break down molecules and build new molecules.

Cell metabolism: All living cells in a person’s body has a metabolism, which is also known as cell metabolism. Our metabolism differs from our cell metabolism. There are two metabolic pathways; the first part is the catabolism, this is where our body breaks down food to use for energy. The second part is the Anabolism, this is where our body uses food so that they’re able to repair and build new cells. Our metabolic process terminates only when we die.

Catabolism: Catabolism is a process in which larger molecules are broken down into smaller ones and release energy. This reaction is also known chemically as the oxidation reaction.

Anabolism: Anabolism is a process in which smaller molecules join together creating larger molecules, afterwards these are then stored as energy in the newly formed chemical bonds. This reaction is also known chemically as the reduction reaction.

Types of energy
Energy forces our bodies to grow, whilst allowing our minds to think. Energy is found is many different forms, these are:
Chemical energy;
Heat energy;
Light energy;
Sound energy;
Electrical energy;
Nuclear energy.

Although there are many forms of energy, they are all put into two different categories, these are:
Kinetic energy (the motion of waves, atoms, molecules, substances, objects etc.);
Potential energy (stored energy and gravitational energy).

Chemical energy in held in the bonds of molecules and atoms, making up a substance. When this energy is released, the substance is then transformed entirely into a new substance. Exothermic chemical energy is when energy is released and Endothermic energy is where a reaction requires energy to take place. Chemical energy is used every day in our bodies to complete daily tasks. For example, food contains calories and when digested the energy is released. Meaning that the molecules in food are broken down into smaller pieces. Oxidation occurs in this process as the bonds have either been broken down or loosened. The chemical reaction involved in our digestive system supplies our bodies with warmth as well as helping to maintain and repair our body and releasing energy we need to move around.

The respiratory system
In the respiratory system the energy plays roles in the lungs. This is due to the lungs haemoglobin reacting with oxygen, then binding the oxygen in the inhaled breath so that it can be carried around to the cells that are in need of it. The respiratory system removes carbon dioxide and water from the body as well as maintaining an oxygen supply to all of the cells. There are both internal and external respirations. Internal respiration (known as cell respiration) is where the body’s cells are provided with energy in order to perform tasks, whereas external respiration is where blood is transported, your breathing and gaseous exchange. The respiration system contains alveolus which allows diffusion of oxygen into the blood stream and carbon dioxide out of the blood stream. This process allows the respiratory system and cardiovascular system to work together to transfer nutrients. Once the oxygen is pulled of off the haemoglobin for the body to use, this is known as an endothermic reaction, heat energy is then taken in. Therefore the role is of energy in the respiratory system is to cool the tissues down and warm the air in our lungs.

Your body requires carbohydrates as the most important part on it is glucose, which is a major energy fuel. Glucose is oxidized, carbon dioxide and water are formed, creating pathways of glucose catabolism are glycolysis, this occurs in the cytosol, and on the mitochondria. During hyperglycaemia (too much glucose in the bloodstream), glucose is stored as glycogen or converted to fat.

Gluconeogenesis: This is a formation of glucose, specifically from the liver. Fats are broken down to restore normal blood glucose levels. The fats insulate the body, as well as protecting our organs and reserving energy.

The liver is the human body’s key metabolic organ as its cells remove nutrients from hepatic portal blood whilst performs glycogenesis (glucose converted to and stored as glycogen), glycogenolysis (glycogen broken down into glucose), and gluconeogenesis (production of glucose from proteins and fats) to maintain homeostasis of blood glucose levels.
The Cardiovascular system
The cardiovascular system is made up of the heart, blood and blood vessels. The blood is then carried from the heart around the body via the arteries; then back to the heart via veins. The capillaries are there to connect the arteries to the veins and their role is to supply cells with nutrients and oxygen. For a sufficient meet of energy the cardiovascular system has to provide oxygenated blood to the whole body, by doing so your system is providing your cells with the oxygen and nutrients they require to generate energy as well as with the building blocks they need to make larger molecules. The cardiovascular system transports oxygenated blood around the body to the cells; then collecting the deoxygenated blood which has been excreted from the cells. The cardiovascular system delivers the nutrients, oxygen and glucose via the blood stream. For aerobic respiration to occur we need oxygen.
The digestive system
The digestive system is made up of an arrangement of organs that will break down bigger molecules of food to smaller molecules by using the enzymes that your body creates. Once the majority of food is broken down your body then provides energy to most of its functions. All of the energy that is produced through the foods you eat helps the body to move, run, talk etc.

How two body systems interrelate to each other?
The respiratory and cardiovascular system work together to transport oxygen to cells of the body and to remove carbon dioxide. The circulatory system delivers nutrients that can be absorbed through the walls of the small intestine to the other organs as well as delivering oxygenated blood to the digestive system. When breathing in oxygen it diffuses across the thin walls of the alveoli in the lung, the thin walls of the blood vessels and into the blood stream. Here haemoglobin attaches to the molecules inside red blood cells, these red blood cells are then carried by the blood vessels all over the body. Then the oxygen is released from the haemoglobin and picks up carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide then is transported back to the lungs and is breathed out. The respiratory system gives out oxygen to the blood cells in the cardiovascular system, the respiratory system provides oxygen to the blood and the cardiovascular system carries the oxygenated blood through the body to keep cells alive and function properly. Without the cardiovascular system the respiratory system is unable to function properly and vice versa.

Mary Lougee. (Updated May 11th 2018). What is chemical energy? Available: https://sciencing.com/what-is-chemical-energy-13712146.html. Last accessed 22nd October 2018.

Mahnoor Khalid. (6th March 2014). Role of energy in the respiratory, cardiovascular and digestive system. Available: https://prezi.com/jigipeh2qxpt/role-of-energy-in-the-respiratory-cardiovascular-and-digest/. Last accessed 22nd October 2018.

Unknown. (2018-09-10). Human metabolism. Available: https://www.disabled-world.com/fitness/metabolism/. Last accessed 22nd October 2018.