MIC09101 Word count

MIC09101
Word count :
center3083045Effects of a vegan diet on the human health00Effects of a vegan diet on the human health-136489335069Matriculation number : 40404034Edinburgh Napier University00Matriculation number : 40404034Edinburgh Napier University
Table of Contents
Introduction………………………………………………………………………2
Chronic diseases………………………………………………………………..

Cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart disease)………………………

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Hypertension (and cataract)………………………………………………..

Cancer………………………………………………………………………..

Nutrients status………………………………………………………………….

Vitamin B12………………………………………………………………….

Vitamin C…………………………………………………………………….

Calcium and Bone Mineral Density……………………………………….

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………….

References……………………………………………………………………….

Introduction
A vegan diet is a diet in which people don’t eat any animal product, this means they don’t consume meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, honey and other products using animals to be made. People chose to follow this diet for animal-related, health-related and/or environmental reasons (Janssen et al., 2016).
The environmental reasons are numerous: greenhouse gas emission and polluted air (because of animals and fertilizers) partially responsible for global warming, deforestation, scarcity of water reserves, ocean destruction and so on.

Health-related motives are more discussed because some studies demonstrate that not eating any animal products can enhance the health especially by reducing risks of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, hypertension or even some cancer. It has also been shown in multiple studies (Dyett et al., 2013) that globally, vegans have a lower body mass index (BMI) than non-vegan people and are less likely to suffer from obesity. That can influence the results for the chronic diseases. But a vegan diet can also cause some nutrients defects in vitamin B12 and calcium that can cause some health-related problems.

Finally, we can wonder if a vegan diet is a healthier diet than a vegetarian diet or a non vegan diet.
Chronic diseases
Cardiovascular diseases
Kim et al. (2012) and Szeto et al. (2004) studies have shown that long-term vegetarians (vegans included) had a diet richer in vitamin A and C than healthy omnivores, especially because of the higher consumption of fruits and vegetables. Vitamin A and C are antioxidant thus vegetarians are less exposed to oxidative stress than omnivores. Higher antioxidant and in particular vitamin C intake (and presence in plasma) is associated with a lower susceptibility to develop cardiovascular diseases, especially ischemic heart diseases and stroke (Szeto et al., 2014).
Moreover, age-adjusted and sex-adjusted death rate ratio for ischemic disease for vegan and omnivores have been compared in Key et al. (1999) study: the vegan death rate ratio (0.74) is lower than the omnivore one (1.00 for regular meat eaters and 0.80 for non-regular). However, when pesco-vegetarians (don’t eat meat but fish) and vegetarians eating dairy products and eggs are compared with vegans in the same study, the death rate ratio for ischemic disease is higher for vegans (0.74 compared to a ratio of 0.66 for both pesco-vegetarians and vegetarians). These last data may be distorted because of the small number of vegans participants to the study compared to the other diet groups.

MINI CONCLU et + d’info
Hypertension
Hypertension is part of the cardiovascular diseases and is the first risk factor for stroke. Appleby et al. (2002) showed that vegans had a signficantly lower blood pressure than all of the other diet groups (omnivores, pesco-vegetarians and vegetarians). This difference is partially explained by the global body mass index difference between diet groups, the vegan group being the one with the lower BMI. A high BMI is an important risk factor for all cardiovascular diseases but especially for hypertension (Dua et al., 2014).

Cataract and hypertension are also linked: indeed, hypertension is a risk factor for this eye disease but so is a high BMI.

Cancer
Cancer is also a common argument to begin a vegan diet.
Nutrients status
Vitamin B 12
Vitamin C
Calcium, Vitamin D and BMD
Conclusion
+ vegan lifestyle may be better than non vegan lfestyle (lot of factors such as smoking, exercising)

References
Appleby, P., Allen, N. & Key T. (2011). Diet, vegetarianism, and cataract risk. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 93, 1128-1135. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.004028
Appleby, P., Davey, G. & Key, T. (2002). Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans in EPIC–Oxford. Public Health Nutrition, 5(5), 645-654. doi: 10.1079/PHN2002332
Appleby, P., Roddam, A., Allen, N. & Key T. (2007). Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61, 1400-1406. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/1602659
Ball, M. & Bartlett, M. (1999). Dietary intake and iron status of Australian vegetarian women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70(3), 353-358. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/70.3.353
Beezhold, B., Radnitzb, C., McGrathb, R. & Feldmanb, A. (2018). Vegans report less bothersome vasomotor and physical menopausal symptoms than omnivores. Maturitas, 112, 12-17. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2018.03.009
Castañéa, S. & Antón, A. (2017). Assessment of the nutritional quality and environmental impact of two food diets: A Mediterranean and a vegan diet. Journal of Cleaner Production, 167, 929-937. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.04.121
Donaldson, M.S. (2000). Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 44, 229-234. doi: 10.1159/000046689
Dua, S., Bhuker, M., Sharma, P., Dhall, M. & Kapoor, S. (2014). Body mass index relates to blood pressure among adults. North American Journal of Medical Sciences, 6(2), 89-95. doi: 10.4103/1947-2714.127751
Dyett, P., Sabaté, J., Haddad, E., Rajaram, S. & Shavlik, D. (2013). Vegan lifestyle behaviors: An exploration of congruence with health-related beliefs and assessed health indices. Appetite, 67, 119-124. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2013.03.015
Gilsing, A., Crowe, F., Lloyd-Wright, Z., Sanders, T., Appleby, P., Allen, N. & Key, T. (2010). Serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate in British male omnivores, vegetarians, and vegans: Results from a cross-sectional analysis of the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 64(9), 933-939. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.142
Haddad, E., Berk, L., Kettering, J., Hubbard, R. & Peters, W. (1999). Dietary intake and biochemical, hematologic, and immune status of vegans compared with nonvegetarians. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 586-593. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/70.3.586s
Herrmann, W., Schorr, H., Purschwitz, K., Rassoul, F. & Richter, V. (2001). Total homocysteine, vitamin B12, and total antioxidant status in vegetarians. Clinical Chemistry, 47(6). Retrieved from http://clinchem.aaccjnls.org/content/47/6/1094
Janssen, M., Busch, C, Rödiger, M. & Hamm, U. (2016). Motives of consumers following a vegan diet and their attitudes towards animal agriculture. Appetite, 105, 643-651. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.06.039
Key, T., Appleby, P., Spencer, E., Travis, R., Roddam, A. & Allen, N. (2009). Cancer incidence in vegetarians: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(5), 1620S-1626S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736M
Key, T., Fraser, G., Thorogood, M., Appleby, P., Beral, V., Reeves, G., … McPherson, K. (1999). Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70(3), 516-524. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/70.3.516s
Kim, M.K., Cho, S.W. & Park Y.K. (2012). Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels. Nutrition Research and Practice, 6(2), 155-161. doi: 10.4162/nrp.2012.6.2.155
Larsson, C. & Johansson, G. (2005). Young Swedish Vegans Have Different Sources of Nutrients than Young Omnivores. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 105, 1438-1441. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2005.06.026
Lau, E.M.C., Kwok, T., Woo, J. & Ho, S.C. (1998). Bone mineral density in Chinese elderly female vegetarians, vegans, lacto-vegetarians and omnivores. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 52, 60–64. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/1600516
Mearns, G.-J., Koziol-McLain, J., Obolonkin, V. & Rush, E.-C. (2014). Preventing vitamin B12 deficiency in South Asian women of childbearing age: a randomised controlled trial comparing an oral vitamin B12 supplement with B12 dietary advice. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 68, 870–875. Retrieved from www.nature.com/articles/ejcn201456
Schüpbach, R., Wegmüller, R., Berguerand, C., Bui, M. & Herter-Aeberli I. (2017). Micronutrient status and intake in omnivores, vegetarians and vegans in Switzerland. European Journal of Nutrition, 56(1), 283-293. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-1079-7
Szeto, Y., Kwok, T. & Benzie, I. (2004). Effects of a long-term vegetarian diet on biomarkers of antioxidant status and cardiovascular disease risk. The International Journal of Applied and Basic Nutritional Sciences, 20(10), 863-866. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2004.06.006

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