Published by Caribbean Examinations Council 37 Arnold Road Kingston 5 Caenwood Complex JAMAICA Telephone Number

Published by Caribbean Examinations Council
37 Arnold Road
Kingston 5
Caenwood Complex
JAMAICA
Telephone Number: (876) 630-5200
Facsimile Number: (876) 967-4972
E-mail Address: [email protected]
Website: www.cxc.org
Copyright ©2017 by Caribbean Examinations Council
Prince Road, Pine Plantation Road, St Michael BB11091
Table of Contents
Preamble…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………1
Considerations when doing the School-Based Assessment…………………………………………………..2
General Suggestions for Selection of Area(s) for Research……………………………………………………3
The Research Report…………………………………………………………………………………………………………4
Table of Contents……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4
Topic/Issue/Problem …………………………………………………………………………………………………………4
Objectives………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..5
Background/ Overview………………………………………………………………………………………………………6
Methodology ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………6
Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….8
Recommendations…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….8
References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….9
Appendix…………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………….10
Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate®
Business Cognate
School-Based Assessment
Research Guidelines
CSEC® BUSINESS COGNATE SBA RESEARCH GUIDELINES
1
PREAMBLE
he School-Based Assessment (SBA) is an integral part of student assessment in the course
covered in oursyllabuses. It is intended to assist students in acquiring certain knowledge, skills
and attitudes that are associated with the subjects. The activities for the School-Based
Assessment are linked to the syllabuses and should form part of the learning activities to enable
the student to achieve the objectives.
This document seeks to guide users in their attempt to satisfy the requirements for the SBA.
It provides examples which were generated by participants in Teacher Orientation Workshops
conducted by the Caribbean Examinations Council in May – June 2017 across the Region in
collaboration with the Ministries of Education.
The examples are therefore expected to be used ONLY as a guideline for the generation of
contextually relevant ideas and are not to be replicated by candidates.
For further details on the School-Based Assessment, please refer to the CSEC® Principles of
Accounts, CSEC® Principles of Business and the CSEC® Economics Syllabuses.
T
CSEC® BUSINESS COGNATE SBA RESEARCH GUIDELINES
2
CONSIDERATIONS WHEN DOING THE SCHOOL-BASED ASSESSMENT
When you select your area of study for the School-Based Assessment (SBA) you should be
able to answer “Yes” to AT LEAST ONE of the following:
For your SBA you are encouraged to:
Will it help me academically so that I can matriculate to
further studies and pursue a career in the field?
Will it help me to find a job when I complete the course of
study?
Can it help me to become an entrepreneur providing a good
or service?
1. study/research areas of interest to you;
2. study/research manageable and meaningful components of the topic; and,
3. study/research areas that are affecting or likely to affect you, your home,
school, community and/or country.
CSEC® BUSINESS COGNATE SBA RESEARCH GUIDELINES
3
GENERAL SUGGESTIONS FOR SELECTION OF AREA(S) FOR RESEARCH
Teachers and students are at liberty to study/research any topic that is in the syllabus.
The following ideas may be used to guide your choice:
1. Look around your home, school and community:
(a) and identify existing large or small businesses, and entrepreneurs. These may
be successful or unsuccessful. Carry out an initial review of these to see if there
are aspects that would lend themselves to research in which you may apply
the concepts and principles that are found in the syllabus(es) you are studying,
and make some recommendations for improvement or sustainability;
(b) to identify existing factors such as changing demographics, new technologies,
social changes, and socioeconomics issues such as unemployment. All your
other subjects and lessons such as Agricultural Science, Geography, Home
Economics, Industrial Technology, Information Technology, Music, Physical
Education, Science, Social Studies, and Visual Arts could help with your initial
review of the situation. Examine the extent to which there are potential
entrepreneurial opportunities. Use these observations as the basis of your
research project with a view to recommending or planning the start-up of a
business venture.
2. Follow the news via print or electronic media to see what is current on the local and
international levels. Analyse the information being shared with a view to identifying
aspects that are included in the syllabus(es) that you are studying. Where the issues
being presented in the news may be occurring at the international level, or concern
other countries, try to identify how this may impact your local situation and focus on
that. Select manageable components and portions which will allow you to conduct a
genuine and meaningful research and collect useful data.
3. While out on fieldtrips, assess the environment for breaches of the environmental
laws and/or standards outlined in the syllabus(es) that you are studying. Use this
information to guide the research problem on which you will focus with a view to
recommending or developing creative and innovative solutions.
4. Discuss your interests with your teacher and get approval before embarking on your
research.
CSEC® BUSINESS COGNATE SBA RESEARCH GUIDELINES
4
THE RESEARCH REPORT
Table of Contents
Topic/Issue/Problem
The main headings in this document are listed using style and format appropriate for
presenting a research paper.
For an example of a table of contents please see published books and other relevant
documents.
The exact topic/issue/problem on which the research will focus after preliminary review
and observation of the ‘bigger picture’ is done.
? The component(s) or aspect(s) to be studied must be clearly and precisely stated.
? Once the exact topic/issue/problem is clear and precise, it is easy to state the
Objective(s) of the Research.
? The details are reserved for the Background/Overview which comes later.
N.B. Get permission before using personal information, such as names, in a way that may
‘harm’ participants (research ethics). Different organisations have regulations that the
candidate should verify before starting the research. These regulations must be adhered to
at ALL times.
Examples:
? An assessment of the impact of imported peanuts on Mr Thomson’s business.
? A study of the extent to which production cost at Zebra Company affects profitability.
? An investigation into the factors which contribute to the decline in the sale of soap in
Farm Fresh supermarket.
? An investigation of the impact of the supply chain used by Bird Island Grocery Store.
? A study of the impact of the supply chain on the profitability of Apple Valley High
School Cafeteria.
Please click here
for additional
examples.
CSEC® BUSINESS COGNATE SBA RESEARCH GUIDELINES
5
Objectives
The specific purpose and focus of the research project, and therefore what the instruments,
activities and report will cover.
These must be:
1. directly linked to the stated topic/issue/problem; and,
2. realistic/doable especially within the timeframe and requirements of the CSEC® level.
(Maximum 1,000 words for report)
N.B. The Objective is NOT to satisfy the requirements of CXC® for the SBA.
It should be to gather meaningful data and solve a problem.
Examples:
? To identify the strengths and weaknesses of XYZ business.
? To describe how imported peanuts have affected sales at XYZ business.
? Identify how to restore XYZ business to profitability.
? To find out the source of capital available to young entrepreneurs in St Kitts.
? To identify the challenges associated with acquiring capital during a recession.
Please click here
for additional
examples.
CSEC® BUSINESS COGNATE SBA RESEARCH GUIDELINES
6
Background/Overview
A description of the ‘bigger picture’ in which the topic/issue/problem falls. This includes
but is not restricted to the history, development, socio-economic and environmental
settings.
The establishment of the need or justification for conducting the research such as:
1. Why/how is the topic/issue/problem important to the student.
2. The impact of the topic/issue/problem on society.
Examples:
? The local Health Department has reported an increase in cases such as Carpal Tunnel
Syndrome, deterioration in sight, poor circulation, and pain in the neck, shoulder, and
back. The data suggests that many of the patients who present with these symptoms
work in offices and business related environments.
? According to the Statistical Department of Antigua and Barbuda, 48 per cent of all taxi
drivers experienced seasonal unemployment in 2016. This is a situation which can
have significant implications for the well-being of their families as well as for the socioeconomic
climate of the country. Besides, this is a Caribbean phenomenon where
many territories depend on the Tourist industry for a large part of their revenue.
Please click here
for additional
examples.
CSEC® BUSINESS COGNATE SBA RESEARCH GUIDELINES
7
Methodology
How the research was conducted.
? This includes sample, data collection instruments, and the strategies used to collect,
present and analyse data during the research as well as in the report.
? These must be clearly described.
? They must be justified based on the nature and purpose of the research.
? Data presentation and analysis strategies must be related to and appropriate for the
field of study and research. Ensure that you are au fait with the style and jargon of the
discipline.
? The findings that are presented must be consistent with the analyses.
? Any limitations encountered MUST be clearly outlined. These may have significant
implications for the validity of the research, and subsequently the reliability of the
results and the credibility of the resulting conclusions and recommendations.
Examples:
Sample:
A community, business, office, sole trader, group of workers, product, service, an industry.
Data Collection Strategies:
Surveys, interviews, examination of documents, observation, focus group meetings.
Data Collection Instruments:
Questionnaire, Interview schedule, observation schedule, checklist.
Type of Data:
Quantitative and or Qualitative: Artefacts, records, financial statements.
Method of Presentation:
Tables, graphs.
Methods of Analysis:
Simple statistics such as Mean, Median and Mode, as well as relevant calculations using
relevant formulae. The presentation and discussions must reflect knowledge of the style
and jargon of the discipline.
Limitations:
Failure to access all relevant records from an organisation due to confidentiality issues.
Inaccurate records.
CSEC® BUSINESS COGNATE SBA RESEARCH GUIDELINES
8
Conclusion
Recommendations
A restatement and summary of your findings to say what they mean in relation to the
stated Research Objective(s).
? Must be logical and based on the findings.
? DO NOT be tempted to draw biased conclusions to suit what you thought was in the
field. Use the data that you gathered.
Examples:
From our findings it is evident that the benefits derived from shopping online heavily
outweigh those gained from shopping locally. As such, we conclude that it is indeed more
economical to engage in e-commerce.
In order for young entrepreneurs to be successful, funding is necessary as start-up as well
as working capital.
Your informed research-based advice given to the reader and the user of the research
results. It includes:
(a) action that should/could be taken based on the research findings; and,
(b) suggestions for further research to focus on aspects of the issue not covered in your
research, or to use a different or larger sample to gather additional data to support
decisions that may need to be taken.
? These must be realistic and informed by the findings.
? They should contribute to a better understanding of the topic/issue/problem, or
provide a creative/innovative solution to a problem.
Examples:
? Young entrepreneurs should do a thorough research of various sources of funding
available for the type of business in which they are interested.
? Entrepreneurs should always weigh the advantages and disadvantages of different
sources of funding.
? Local business owners should revise their current prices in order to increase sales and
combat the threat of e-commerce.
Please click here
for additional
examples.
Please click here
for additional
examples.
CSEC® BUSINESS COGNATE SBA RESEARCH GUIDELINES
9
References and Appendices
Overall Presentations
List of ALL resources used in the research. This includes primary and secondary resources,
as well as electronic documents and links.
N.B. Appendices should be used to include artefacts as necessary to add to the credibility
and academic quality of the Report.
? Use of language.
? Use of technology to achieve the style and format appropriate for presenting a
research paper.
CSEC® BUSINESS COGNATE SBA RESEARCH GUIDELINES
1
0
Please see below for more examples to assist you in completing the Research Report.
? An investigation into the impact of the use of ICT Tools and equipment to enhance
efficiency at the workplace.
? To investigate how the relocation of Mr Brown’s craft shop has affected his performance.
? The impact of increasing petrol prices on the small businesses in my community.
? To investigate the poor quality of food available at the San San Community College
Cafeteria: cause and effect.
? An investigation into the cost effective methods of the movement of goods from Trinidad
to Tobago.
? The benefits that government offers to small businesses in my community.
? To investigate the percentage of students who prefer not to purchase food at the
Masters Food Court on the Riversdale School campus and their reasons.
? A study of how bad record keeping practices affect street vendors in the tourist zone of
Long Beach.
? The effectiveness of implementing a point of sale system at a school cafeteria: a case
study.
? An investigation into ways in which ICT affects what people do at home, school and the
work environment.
? The role that government plays in the establishment of small business in my country.
? The impact of increasing petrol prices on the taxi operators in the community of Seaside.
? The impact of unemployment in my community.
? An investigation into the major factors that impact seasonal unemployment among taxi
drivers at Port Sealey between May and August each year.
? A study of the impact of the requirements of lending institutions on the success of young
entrepreneurs in Mt Piton.
? A study of the feasibility of offering a courier service to my community.
? An investigation to determine how the employed marketing strategy affects the demand
for banana bread at Lue’s Bakery.
? An investigation into whether or not it is economical to purchase clothing through
e-commerce rather than purchasing locally in Antigua.
? A study of the extent to which having school fetes meets its objective as a major revenue
earner for a particular school.
? How does the availability of resources affect production on the school farm.
? An investigation into the reasons why students prefer to purchase lunch from outside
vendors as opposed to the school’s cafeteria.
? A study of the extent to which the inventory controls system at Portside Shoe Factory is
used effectively within the context of production and sales.
? A study of the feasibility of offering a telephone service to my schoolmates.
Topic/Issue/
Problem
Appendix
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CSEC® BUSINESS COGNATE SBA RESEARCH GUIDELINES
? To identify the various costs associated with production at Campbell’s Manufacturing
Ltd.
? To outline how the various costs affect a firm’s profit or loss.
? To identify the effects of relocation on a business.
? To identify the extent to which inflation affects standard of living in a community.
? To explain why some persons cannot find employment throughout the year.
? To explain why the prices of some goods are higher in my community as compared with
those in the capital.
? To identify the provisions made by the companies in my parish to maintain health and
safety standards of the employees.
? To gather data to facilitate the start-up of a business to provide affordable and nutritious
meals for students in Apple Valley High School.
? To gather data to facilitate the start-up of a company to deliver goods in a cost effective
and timely manner to businesses in my community.
? To determine the extent to which the flyers distributed by Rennie’s Supermarket
influence what customers purchase.
? To determine the most appropriate marketing strategies for fish cakes.
? To determine the effectiveness of the marketing strategies used by the Apple Valley
School cafeteria.
? To find out the benefits of shopping online.
? To determine if e-commerce is a threat to local businesses in my parish.
? To assess financial performance of fundraising activities by the Drama Club over the last
four years.
? To identify the best method of generating revenue for the Youth Club in my community.
? To determine the good/service provided by Plants Unlimited which has the least
opportunity cost.
? To determine how much resources are needed by the school farm to produce at
optimum level.
? To determine the factors that influence choice among the shoppers at Bobby’s Grocery
Store.
Objectives
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CSEC® BUSINESS COGNATE SBA RESEARCH GUIDELINES
? The community of Priestman’s Valley was badly flooded last year due to the
inappropriate disposal practices of that and other surrounding communities. Several
plastic bottles were dumped all over the communities and when the rains started, all the
drains and the river overflowed destroying the homes and farms of the occupants. This
caused a severe setback for everyone and the government is trying to find ways of
mitigating this. One proposal is incentives for manufacturing companies which
implement different and innovative ways to package their products in order to reduce
the quantity of plastic containers that consumers have to dispose of.
? The local school has seen an increase in the number of students who present with signs
and symptoms of obesity. The school nurse has also had to rush a number of students to
the local hospital after they fall ill in the classroom. Preliminary investigations reveal that
a number of these students tend to take ‘junk food’ to school and also do not purchase
lunch in the school cafeteria where only balanced and nutritious meals are served.
? Street vendors have been seen all around our neighbourhood selling for years. They form
a part of the informal economy and contribute to the economic activities in the areas.
Some have been successful, while others are barely surviving even though they have
families for which they have to care. They also complain of challenges they face since
they do not have evidence of contributing to the formal systems such as income tax,
health insurance, and other social security schemes.
? The school cafeteria has been reporting losses over the last six months, even though they
serve the same number of lunches each day and have even increased prices in some
cases. The cafeteria uses the traditional system where cashiers manually conduct the
financial transactions with the students, and then reconcile sales accounts and cash sales
books with the school’s accountant. However, this activity is not only time-consuming
but could lead to a high level of inaccuracy which might have been contributing to the
lack of profitability in the cafeteria. The use of a point-of-sales system can improve
record keeping. This can benefit not only the owner of the cafeteria, but also the
students as it will lead to improved customer service, for example, saving time.
? Mr Thomson has planted peanuts for a living for more than 20 years and has employed
several persons in Southland. He sells his peanuts around the island and has been a very
successful businessman. Recently there has been an influx of imported peanuts on the
market at a cheaper rate than that offered by Mr Thomson. This could create a glut which
could affect his business.
? According to Ms Warren, the Cafeteria Manager of Commissary High School, on a daily
basis banana bread is a highly demanded item on the menu; and by 10:00 a.m. her stock
is depleted.
? Over the years, fundraisers have been a major revenue earner for schools. The revenue
is used to supplement government support to purchase supplies and even assist
students as they pursue their education. It is not certain what assessment has been done
from a business perspective to analyse the effectiveness of events such as Barbeques as
a source of income, and whether or not such activities are worth the effort and time
invested by school personnel. Besides, there are those who at times associate negativity
with these activities as they overestimate the returns as well as doubt the true use to
which the returns are put. There are also those who do not regard fund raising as the
business of the school.
? The research becomes beneficial to society since it should help to provide a more stable
supply of products, thus preventing shortage and leading to a spike in prices.
Background/
Overview
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CSEC® BUSINESS COGNATE SBA RESEARCH GUIDELINES
? Local business owners should add a website to their traditional brick and mortar
establishments, so that consumers can shop comfortably form their own homes.
? Social platforms like Facebook and Instagram can be effectively employed to raise
awareness of the clothing offered by locals.
? Schools should engage in less stressful fundraisers which do not occupy so much
instructional time, and which yield higher returns.
? Schools should make their financial statements available to stakeholders to facilitate
increased stakeholder satisfaction and opportunities for income generation through low
stress activities.
? Institutions should implement more effective marketing strategies to reach the full
target market and thus increase the possibility of more revenue.
? During the peak season for each product, more resources should be allocated to the
production of that product.
? The Apple Valley High School should explore the possibility of establishing overseas
markets, in the case there is a surplus of fruits produced by the school farm.
? Jack’s Enterprise should arrange for better collaboration between departments in order
for a better movement of stock.
? Terry’s Department Store should employ a different method of stock valuation. LIFO is
not working, so FIFO should be implemented to avoid goods from becoming obsolete.
? There is no one marketing strategy that is appropriate for the marketing of banana
bread.
? A review of the findings of the research suggests that while barbeques continue to be a
major source of revenue for one school, the records of schools show that they lose from
these events. All three schools recommend alternative events such as Walkathons and
concerts.
? We can conclude from all the data collected that a change from the production of eggs
to growing sweet potatoes can be done on a seasonal basis. During the Christmas season
eggs were in higher demand while in Easter sweet potatoes were in a higher demand. It
can also be concluded that both eggs and sweet potatoes can be produced by the school
if there is an adjustment in the resources allotted to the Agricultural Science
Department.
? An efficient use of the method of stock valuation was not in place due to the types of
goods offered as well as the method of valuation used.
? The stock control between departments is inefficient since too many waste goods were
found.
Conclusion
Recommendations
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