SAPOTACEAE A

SAPOTACEAE A.L. de Juss, Gen. Pl. 151 (1789).
Key to Genera
1. Leaves with 10-14 pairs of secondary nerves; Corolla not fleshy…..1. Aesandra
1. Leaves with 13-18 pairs of secondary nerves; Corolla fleshy…………2. Madhuca
AESANDRA H.J. Lam, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. Ser. 3.7:187 (1925).
Aesandra butyracea (Roxb.) Baehni, Boissiera 11: 29 (1965); Chater in Hara et al., Enum. Fl. Pl. Nep. 3: 77 (1982). Diploknema butyracea (Roxb.) H. J. Lam., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser 3.7: 187 (1925); 8: 465 (1927). var. butyracea van Royen, Blumea 9: 82 (1958). Bassia butyracea Roxb., Asiat. Res. 8: 499 (1805); C.B. Clark in Hook. f., FBI. 3: 546 (1882); Duthie, Cat. Pl. Ku. 106 (1906); Osmaston, For. Fl. Ku. 322 (1927); Gaur, Fl. Garh. NW. Him. 201 (1999).
Vern. Chyura.
Medium-sized, deciduous trees. Bark dark-grey or blackish, smooth. Leaves ovate-oblong or elliptic, leathery, obtuse-acuminate, entire, coriaceous, dark glossy green above, pubescent beneath; lateral nerves 10-14 pairs. Flowers pale-yellow, solitary or in axillary clusters. Calyx coriaceous, rusty, tomentose. Corolla white or creamy, cylindrical not fleshy, lobes spreading. Berries ellipsoid, green, shining.
Fl. & Fr.: Nov-Jul. Common in the subhimalayan tract and outer hills from 900-1500 m.
MADHUCA Gmel. Syst. Nat. 2: 799 (1791).
Madhuca indica (Koenig) Mac Bride, Contrib. Gray Herb. Harward. Univ. n.s. 53: 17 (1918); Baehni, Boissiera. 11: 35 (1965). Bassia latifolia Koenig in L., Mant. Pl. 2: 563 (1771); C.B. Clarke in Hook. f., FBI. 3: 544 (1882). Bassia latifolia Roxb., Pl. Corom. 1: 20 (1795); Duthie, Fl. U. Gang. Pl. 2: 11 (1903). Osmaston, For. Fl. Ku. 322 (1927); Gaur, Fl. Garh. NW. Him. 200 (1999); Singh & Prakash, Fl. Raj. Nat. Par. 132 (2002).
Vern. Mahua.
Large, deciduous tree. Bark grey or blackish wrinkled. Leaves ellipitic or oblong-ellipitic, acuminate or obtuse, glabrous above, densely woolly beneath; lateral nerves 10-14 pairs. Flowers creamy-yellow, in dense drooping panicles. Calyx coriaceous, tomentose. Corolla juicy and fleshy, lobes erect, ovate-lanceolate. Berries oblong-ovoid, fleshy, yellowish when ripe.
Fl. & Fr.: Mar –Jul. Planted along the roadsides in Tarai and Bhabhar region.

EBENACEAE Ventenat, Tabl. Regne Veg. 2: 443 (1799).

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DIOSPYROS L., Sp. Pl. 1057 (1753).
Key to Species
1. Male flowers in 3-flowered cymes……………………………….1. D. kaki
1. Male flowers in several flowered cymes…………………………2. D. montana
Diospyros kaki L. f. Suppl. Pl. 439 (1782).
Vern. Kaku.
Medium sized, deciduous trees. Leaves alternate, ellipitic or ellipitic-ovate, acuminate, glabrous above, pubescent beneath. Flowers greenish. Male flowers in 3-flowered cymes; female flowers solitary. Fruits shining globose, orange-red or yellow when ripe.
Cultivated – gardens and near villages from 1200-1700 m.
Fl. & Fr.: May-Nov.
Diospyros montana Roxb., Pl. Corom. 10 t. 48 (1795) var. cordifolia (Roxb.) Hiern. Monogr. Eben. in Trans. Cambr. Phil. Soc. 12: 222 (1873); Bennet, Fl. Howarh. 272 (1979). D. cordifolia Roxb. Pl. Corom. 1: 38 t. 50 (1795). D. montana auct. non Roxb., C.B. Clarke in FBI. 3: 555 (1882). p.p. Duthie, Fl. U. Gang. Pl. 2: 15 (1922); Gaur, Fl. Garh. NW. Him. 203 (1999); Singh & Prakash, Fl. Raj. Nat. Par. 132 (2002).
Vern.Tendu.
Deciduous trees. Barks ashy-grey. Leaves alternate, ovate-ellipitic, acute, cuneate, cordate, pubescent beneath. Flowers greenish. Male flowers in several flowered cymes; female flowers solitary. Fruits globose, red-black when ripe.
Occassional – open, dry, miscellaneous forests from 400-1400 m.
Fl. & Fr.: Apr-Dec.

ELAEAGNACEAE A.L. de Juss, Gen. Pl. :4 (1789).
ELAEAGNUS L., Sp. Pl. :121 (1753).
Elaeagnus parvifolia Wall. ex Royle, Ill. Bot. Hm. :323, t. 81, f. 1 (1836). E. umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia (Royle) Schneidr., Ill. Handb. Laubh. 2: 411 (1909). E. umbellata auct. non Thunb.(1784); Hook.f., FBI. 5: 201 (1886); Duthie, Cat. Pl. Ku. 156 (1906); Osmaston, For. Fl. Ku. 457 (1927). E. parvifolia Wall. ex Royle var. pedunculatus Basu, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 8:427 (1986). Gawai
Subdeciduus shrubs or small trees, usually more or less armed with stout thorns. Leaves variable in size, elliptic or elliptic-oblong, acute, acuminate or obtuse, base rounded or narrowed, margin undulate, densely clothed above with white stellate hairs when young, becoming glabrous soon. Flowers white or creamy, fragrant, axillary or in dense few-flowered clusters appearing with the young leaves. Fruits globose or ellipsoid, red or pale orange with scattered silvery scales.
Fl.: April-May & Fr.: Sept.-Oct. Fairly common in open forests throughout the area from 1500-2800 m.
OLEACEAE Hoffm. & Link, Fl. Portug. 1: 385 (1813).
Key to Genera
1. Leaves simple:
2. Fruits capsular; leaves ovate or rhomboid………………………….3. Nyctanthus
2. Fruits drupaceous; leaves ovate or oblong-lanceolate …………4. Olea
1. Leaves compound:
3. Trees…………………………………………………………….1. Fraxinus
3. Usually scandant shrubs…………………………………………2. Jasminum

FRAXINUS L., Sp. Pl. 1057 (1753).
Fraxinus micrantha Lingesh. in Engler Bot. Jahrb. 40: 217 (1908); Duthie, Cat. Pl. Ku. 108 (1906); Osmaston, For. Fl. Ku. 332 (1927); Gupta, Fl. Ntl. 220 (1968); Naithani, Fl. Chamoli. 2: 407 (1985); Gaur, Fl. Dist. Garh. NW. Him. 482 (1999).
Vern. Angu.
Large, deciduous trees. Bark pale brown or pale grey, smooth. Leaves opposite, imparipinnate. Leaflets 5-9, lateral ones smaller, oblong or sometimes elliptic-lanceolate, caudate-acuminate, base cuneate, serrate; lateral nerves 10-13 pairs. Flowers in terminal or axillary, drooping panicles. Fruits oblanceolate samara, winged tip emarginated.
Fl. & Fr.: Mar-Sep. Fairly common in moist-shady banj-oak forests and extensively cultivated for timber from 1600-2800 m.

JASMINUM L., Sp. Pl. 7 (1753).
Key to Species
1. Leaves alternate; flowers yellow…………………………………. 4. J. humile
1. Leaves opposite; flowers white or tinged with pink:
2. Leaves all simple……………………………………………….1. J. arborescens
2. Leaves compound:
3. Calyx-teeth less than 0.5 cm long; young leaves glabrous………2. J. dispermum
3. Calyx-teeth 0.2 cm long or more; young leaves puberulous:
4. Axillary cymes shorter than the leaves; leaflets 3-7…………….5. J. officinale
4. Axillary cymes usually longer than the leaves; leaflets 5-11………3. J. grandiflorum
Jasminum arborescens Roxb. Fl. Ind. 1: 94 (1820); C.B. Clarke in Hook.f., FBI. 3: 594 (1882); Duthie, Cat. Pl. Ku. 108 (1906); Osmaston, For. Fl. Ku. 334 (1927); Gupta, Fl. Ntl. 219 (1968); Pant, Fl. Cor. Nat. Par. 100 (1986); Gaur, Fl. Dist. Garh. NW. Him. 482 (1999); Singh & Prakash, Fl. Raj. Nat. Par. 133 (2002).
Vern. Chameli.
Deciduous, scandant shrubs. Bark pale-brown, rough. Leaves opposite, simple, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, base rounded, softly tomentose or glabresent. Flowers white, fragrant, in lax, many flowered, trichotomous pubescent, terminal or axillary cymes. Berries ellipsoid, black.
Common – miscellaneous and sal forests form 400-1700 m.
Fl. & Fr.: Apr-Jul.
Jasminum dispermum Wall. in Roxb. Fl. Ind. 1: 99 (1820); C.B. Clarke in Hook.f., FBI. 3: 602(1882); Duthie, Cat. Pl. Ku. 108 (1906). J. latifolium Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nep. 106 (1825); pro parte; Osmaston, For. Fl. Ku. 335 (1927); Gupta, Fl. Ntl. 218 (1968); Naithani, Fl. Chamoli. 2: 408 (1985); Gaur, Fl. Dist. Garh. NW. Him. 482 (1999).
Vern. Limura.
Evergreen, scandent, glabrous shrubs. Bark pale yellowish-brown, rough. Leaves opposite, imparipinnate or upper ones unifoliate. Leaflets lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, base cordate or rounded. Flowers fragrant, white or tinged with dark pink, in many-flowered, axillary or terminal, drooping panicles. Berries elliptic, dark purple when ripe.
Fl. & Fr.: Mar-Feb. Common in open scrub jungles, grassy slopes, margins of crop fields from 1200-2000 m.
Jasmunum grandiflorum L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 9 (1762); C.B. Clarke in Hook. f., FBI. 3: 603 (1882); Osmaston, For. Fl. Ku. 336 (1927). J. officinale L. var. grandiflorum (L.) Stocks, Bot. Comment. 1: 121 (1830); Duthie, Cat. Pl. Ku. 108 (1906); Gupta, Fl. Ntl. 219 (1968); Naithani, Fl. Chamoli. 2: 409 (1985); Gaur, Fl. Dist. Garh. NW. Him. 483 (1999).
Vern. Jai.
Evergreen, scandent or suberect shrubs. Bark pale-brown, rough. Leaves opposite, imparipinnate. Leaflets 5-11, rhomboid-ovate or lanceolate, acutimate, with broad cuneate base. Flowers fragrant, white with pink spot, in axillary or terminal cymes, longer than the leaves. Berries, ellipsoid.
Fl. & Fr.: Apr-Nov. Frequent in open scrub forests and steep slopes, also cultivated from 600-1700 m.
Jasminum humile L., Sp. P1. 7 (1753); C.B. Clarke in Hook. f., FBI. 3: 602 (1882); Duthie, Cat. Pl. Ku. 108 (1906); Osmaston, For. Fl. Ku. 337 (1927); Gupta, Fl, Ntl. 218 (1968); Naithani, F1. Chamoli. 2: 409 (1985); Gaur, Fl. Dist. Garh. NW. Him. 483 (1999).
Vern. Pili-chameli.
Deciduous, suberect to erect, glabrous shrubs. Bark, pale-brown, smooth. Leaves alternate, imparipinnate. Leaflets ovate or ovate-lanceolate, variable in size, entire, the terminal leaflets usually the largest. Flowers yellow, in terminal corymbose-cymes. Berries globular-ellipsoid, shining, black.
Fl. & Fr.: Mar.-Dec. Common in moist-shady localities, edges of forests form 1500-3000 m.
Jasminum officinale L., Sp. Pl. 7 (1753); C.B. Clarke in Hook.f., FBI. 3: 603 (1882); Duthie, Cat. Pl. Ku. 108 (1906); Osmaston, For. Fl. Ku. 336 (1927); Gupta, Fl, Ntl. 218 (1968); Naithani, F1. Chamoli. 2: 409 (1985); Gaur, Fl. Dist. Garh. NW. Him. 484 (1999).
Vern. Jai.
Deciduous, climbing or subscandent shrubs. Bark yellowish-brown, rough. Leaves opposite, imparipinnate. Leaflets 3-7, ovate-lanceolate, entire, acute. Flowers white, fragrant, in few-flowered, terminal, subumbellate cymes. Berries ellipitic-globose, shining, black.
Occassional – cultivated as well as wild between 600-2800 m.
Fl. & Fr.: Apr-Dec.
NYCTANTHES L., Sp. Pl. 6 (1753).
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. Sp. Pl. : 6 (1753); C.B. Clarke in Hook.f., FBI. 3:603 (1882); Duthie, Cat. Pl. Ku. 108 (1906); Osmaston, For. Fl. Ku. 387 (1927); Gaur, Fl. Dist. Garh. NW. Him. 484 (1999); Singh & Prakash, Fl. Raj. Nat. Par. 134 (2002).
Vern. Parijat, Harsingar.
Deciduous shrubs or small trees. Bark, roughish, brown. Leaves opposite, ovate, acute or acuminate. Flowers sweet scented, orange-white, arranged in short, axillary trichotomous cymes. Capsule long, ovate, truncated, strongly compressed.
Common – dry miscellaneous forests especially on the hot south aspect up to 1400 m.
Fl. & Fr.: Ag. – Mar.
OLEA L., Sp. Pl. 8 (1754).

Olea grandiflora Wall. ex G. Don Gen. Syst. 4: 49 (1838); DC., Prodr. 8: 285 (1844); C.B. Clarke in Hook. f., FBI. 3: 612 (1882); Duthie, Cat. Pl. Ku. 108 (1906); Osmaston, For. Fl. Ku. 339 (1927); Gupta, Fl, Ntl. 217 (1968); Naithani, F1. Chamoli. 2: 414 (1985); Gaur, Fl. Dist. Garh. NW. Him. 485 (1999).
Vern . Garur.
Medium-sized, evergreen trees. Bark rough, dark brown. Leaves ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, long acuminate entire or undulate, base cuneate, glabrous. Flowers cream-white, in terminal and axillary, compound, trichotomous, long cymes. Drupes long, ellipsoid, purplish, black when ripe.
Fl. & Fr.: Mar-Feb. Common, scattered in mixed forests from 600-1800 m.

CAPPARACEAE A.L. de Juss, Gen. Pl. 242 (1789).

CAPPARIS L., Sp. Pl. 1: 503 (1753).
Capparis zeylanica L. Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 720 (1762). C. horida L. f., Suppl. Pl. 264 (1781); Hook.f. & Thoms in FBI. 1: 178 (1872); Osmaston, For. Fl. Ku. 26 (1927); Babu, Herb. Fl. D.Dun. 64 (1977); Gaur, Fl. Dist. Garh. NW. Him. 187 (1999); Singh & Prakash, Fl. Raj. Nat. Par. 28 (2002).
Vern. Khalin
Thorny, climbing shrubs. Leaves ovate, obovate or lanceolate, subcordate at base, acuminate or acute at tip, coriaceous, glabrescent, enitre. Flowers showy, pink or purple, fragrant, supra-axillary, solitary. Frutis subglobose, redish-brown or orange.
Common – in miscellaneous forest, both dry and mosit places, often climbing on trees or bushes from 300-1000 m.
Fl. & Fr.: Feb-Sep. Betalghat, Amel, Pandey 2012.
SALICACEAE Mirbel, Elem. Phys. Veg. Bot. 2: 905 (1815).
Key to Genera
Unarmed
1. Fruits capsular; flowers bisexual…………………………………1. Casearia
1. Fruits berry; flowers unisexual:
Armed:
2. Leaves pubescent; flowers yellowish-green in racemes…………………..2. Flacourtia
2. Leaves glabrous; flowers yellow in dense axillary panicles………….5. Xylosma
3. Base of the leaves cordate……………………………………..3. Populus
3. Base of the leaves not cordate………………………………………4. Salix
CASEARIA
Key to Species
1. Leaves and twigs tomentose………………………………………………1. C. ellipitica
1. Leaves and twigs glabrous………………………………………………..2. C. graveolens

Casearia ellipitica Willd. Sp. Pl. 2:628 (1800). Anavinga lanceolata Lam., Encycl. 1:148 (1783). C. tomentosa Roxb. Fl. Ind. 2.2: 421 (1832); Hook.f. & C.B. Clarke in FBI. 2: 593 (1879); Osmaston, For. Fl. Ku. 254 (1927); Pant. Fl. Cor. Nat. Par. 38 (1986); Gaur, Fl. Dist. Garh. NW. Him. 167 (1999); Singh & Prakash, Fl. Raj. Nat. Par. 29 (2002).
Vern. Chilla.
Evergreen or subdeciduous trees. Bark rough, dark-brown. Leaves alternate, gland dotted, tomentose, serrate, ellipitic-oblong or ovate-oblong, with oblique base. Flowers yellowish-green, in axillary fascicles or clusters. Fruits ellipsoid, fleshy, green.
Fl. & Fr.: Feb-Aug. Common in Sal and miscellaneous forest up to 1500 m.
Casearia graveolens Dalzell in Hook., J. Bot. Gard. Misc. 4:107 (1852); Hook.f. & C.B. Clarke in FBI 2:592 (1879); Osmaston, For. Fl. Ku. 253 (1927); Gaur, Fl. Dist. Garh. NW. Him. 167 (1999); Singh & Prakash, Fl. Raj. Nat. Par. 31 (2002).
Vern. Chilla.
Small deciduous trees. Bark rough, pale brown or pale ashy. Leaves broadly ellipitic, obtuse or acute, crenate-serrate, glabrous. Flowers greenish, glabrous, numerous in dense clusters. Fruits ellipsoid or ovoid, ribbed, orange-yellow.
Fl. & Fr.: May-Jul. Common in Sal and miscellaneous forest up to 1500 m.
FLACOURTIA
Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr. Interpr. Rump. Her. Amb. 377 (1977); Gmelina indica Burm. f., Fl. Ind. 132 t. 39. f. 5 (1768); F. sepiaria Roxb. Pl. Corom. 1: 48 (1795); Hook.f. & Thoms in FBI 1:194 (1872); F. ramontchi L’ Herit., Strip. Nov. 3:95 (1785); Osmaston, For. Fl. Ku. 30 (1927); Pant, Fl. Cor. Nat. Par. 38 (1986); Gaur, Fl. Dist. Garh. NW. Him. 168 (1999), Singh ; Prakash, Fl. Raj. Nat. Par.31 (2002).
Vern. Kangu.
Subdeciduous shrubs or small tree, branched thorns. Bark pale-grey or pinkish-brown, smooth. Leaves alternate, petioled, suborbicular, ovate, toothed or crenate, apex acute, base rounded. Flowers yellowish- green, dioecious in racemes. Fruits subglobose red or dark brown when ripe.
Fl. ; Fr.: Feb–Jun. Common on dry exposed places of mixed forest, up to 1200 m.

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