School evaluation is the systematic investigation of the quality of a school and how well it is serving the needs of its community, and it is one of the most important investments we can make in K-12 (kindergarten through high school) education. It is the way we learn of strengths and weaknesses, the way we get direction, and the way critical issues get identified and resolved. It addresses the needs of many parents who want to know how to choose a good school and the needs of teachers, school administrators, and school board members who want to know how to improve their schools. It also provides important information to local, province, and national leaders by informing their decisions. As an integral part of good management practice, it contributes to (i) identifying needs; (ii) establishing goals; (iii) clarifying goals; (iv) selecting strategies to achieve goals; (v) monitoring progress; and (vi) assessing outcomes and impact. (Kellaghan and Stufflebeam, 2003).
All concerns raised within the context of M&E are the result of various global, regional and national level discussions and debates of the post?Dakar Education forum in 2000. The determination to achieve global targets in education has introduced new key concepts, such as the ‘expanded vision of basic education’, ‘access to equitable and quality education for all’, ‘lifelong learning to youth and adults’ etc. These have affected the way M&E systems have been designed and implemented in many countries around the world. The paradigm shift in M&E towards performance?based and result?oriented outcomes in the development context, along with current education reform trends paying attention to quality in education, has greatly influenced the current approaches and practices of M&E in the education sector (UNESCO 2016).
But, the development of a system for monitoring school or district performance is not an easy task. It must be based on a sound theory about how schools achieve their effects for a monitoring system to be beneficial for planning and decision-making, and it must have a clearly defined purpose which is understood by educators and policy-makers at all levels of the schooling system. It must also cover a wide range of educational goals, and be responsive to changes in the educational system. Yet it cannot be too costly in terms of pupil, teacher, or administrative resources (Willms, 2003)
The integrity of the monitoring and evaluation system must be sustained. Important decisions are made based on the information and insights provided by the system. People get fired, projects are terminated, and judgments are rendered based on the reports and documents prepared by the monitor and the evaluator. Once the integrity of the system is compromised, monitoring and evaluation will do more harm than good. Monitoring and evaluation then should be an essential component of any particular school since it helps in planning. A school should use tools available to help in gathering information. Also, it shows the mistakes and creates paths for both learning and improving (School M&E System, NY).
Such as schools across the nation address societal demands and legislative mandates to prepare a workforce for the 2lst century, school leaders find themselves working to change curriculum within their schools. To accomplish this challenging, sometimes-controversial task of curriculum revision and alignment, school leaders must work with diverse constituencies to achieve the best balance of needs, desires, appropriate assessment, and instruction. Achieving effective curriculum revision, therefore, requires a thorough understanding of the processes and principles of the changing paradigms affecting curriculum development. (Johnson J. 2001)
Thus, different strategies need to be formulated and close monitoring of progress at all levels – school, division, regional, and national level – so as to plan the necessary interventions and corrective actions as needed. (Lewin K.M, 2015)
Access means availability or admittance. The Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary of Current English defined access as an opportunity or right to use something or to see something (Hornby, 2005). Access to basic education can also be described as the opportunity or right that an individual child has to enroll or register for basic education class. The Blue-print on Basic Education stated in one of the objectives of UBE that government shall provide free, universal and basic education for every Nigerian child of school-going age. Enhancing access to and quality of basic education requires the leadership functions of the school head. He develops community-school interactions/relations, ensures accountability and manages the school resources (both human and material). This eases confidence and eventually children are given access to education that they enjoy having, for happy children learn better. (Oni, J.O et.al, 2016)
Access then goes far beyond entry to school: it entails successful completion of a full cycle of primary and lower secondary schooling. In the study of the pattern of enrolment by grades, different zones of exclusion were identified, including a zone of total exclusion, for the marginalized children who never attended, and a zone of ‘hidden exclusion’, where low achievers, children with serious problems of attendance, and the over-aged, can be counted. These children are probably to drop out. The patterns of enrolment and the causes for non-entering or dropping out vary between and within countries. So do the zones of exclusion. In an extended vision of universal access to education, school quality and school processes are intimately linked to the issue of access. If children are not learning something which is useful and meaningful for them, they will not want to stay in school. (Lewin K.M, 2015)
The integral parts of the Government of Djibouti’s master plan includes increasing access to basic education equitably, improving the quality of education and increasing the efficiency of the education system. The said plan was divided into three main components with the following objectives: raise student enrolment and retention with a special focus on girls and children with special needs, and provide suitable facilities for them to complete primary education; improve the quality of education service provision so that it would be conducive to quality learning and teaching, and help reduce repetition and dropout rates;