The clothing brand industry of Pakistan has grown a lot in the past decade causing an increased amount of awareness about Branded clothes and its trends among people. An immense amount of contribution has been made by print, electronic, social media, advertisement companies and, brands themselves by window displays and promoting their brand image, by informing people of their latest clothing styles, trends.
Although the knowledge about the latest clothing Brands are common among people of all ages, the youth shows more interest in such developments. This is caused mostly because of the high popularity of branded and non-branded clothes among young consumers. Past research don by (Damhorst & Reed, 1986) and (Kerr & Dell, 1976) has demonstrated that people are seen in an unexpected way depending upon the sorts of garments that they wear. Today’s youth has a great influence on the elders of the society as well. If we observe the clothing Brands of the women in our region 10-15 years ago, it can be said that the only brands common among people a decade ago for Summer Shopping were “Sitara Lawn” and “Gul Ahmed Lawn”. These were the brands that not only provided great quality fabric and pretty designs but were also economical for the middle class families of Pakistan .
However, today women of all ages can be seen shopping in a variety of Clothing brand outlets that weren’t common or didn’t exist a decade ago. This is because the young generation has both voluntarily and involuntarily familiarized the elders with the latest fashion trends and clothing brands.
It is quite clear that the youth has a lot of role to play in the success or failures of a branded or non-branded clothes. Therefore, it is necessary to see the perception of the youth on the quality of branded and non-branded clothing.
This research intends to:
(I) check how preference for a products quality changes in the presence or absence of a brand, and
(II) (ii) Identify groups of buyers on the aspect of purchase to see how preference for a product attribute changes in the presence or absence of a brand.
This research is performed on a sample of (age group 15-30 and 200 people will fill in the questionnaires). The sample of selected people were requested to fill out a questionnaire containing 17 questions. The results are shown in and analysed in the next parts of the thesis.
The Importance and Dimensions of Quality
A part of the young consumers focuses on the quality of the clothing items. It has been observed that while local clothing brands have high quality, they also have very high prices that a high percentage of the middle class of Pakistan is not able to afford. Due to the branded clothes craze in Pakistan, a lot of people wait for the prices of clothing to be reduced so that they can buy their favorite branded clothes. However, most people do it just to make a point that they are wearing branded clothes .
Quality is nevertheless an important measure that is taken into consideration before buying clothing. It can be defined as the standard an object possesses when it is compared against another object of similar kind. Quality can be differentiated into eight different dimensions as shown in Illustration 1.
These dimensions and their meaning help further categorize the term ‘quality’. Performance is how well a product performs under specific conditions and reliability is a measure of how often the product fails. Durability accounts to the life of the product while serviceability is how easy it is to repair a given product. Aesthetics shows the appearance of the product while features are the characteristics of the product. Finally, perceived quality tells about the reputation of the product while conformance to standards is how well the product conforms to pre-defined standards. All of these aspects are usually consciously or unconsciously in the mind of the customer before purchasing a product.
Clothing Brand Analysis
Branding also plays an important for the producers to enhance and build brand awareness and faithfulness for young consumers. Producers utilize strategies to persuade the consumers, and the goal is to assure that the Brand name is a substitute, or intermediary, for expected advantages. (Raggio ; Leone, 2007) argue that brand provides a guarantee of giving advantages due to brand value, as the recognition of the clothing brand. Similarly, shoppers may have an introduction theory for fulfilment with respect to utilization of a product, to contact a similar producer or brand with a specific end goal to maintain a strategic distance from making a wrong decision. (Keller ; Lehmann, 2006) call this phenomenon “Inertia value” of the clothing brand.
Therefore, Branding may give an assurance that the product purchased today will basically be indistinguishable to the one the customer inspected on a past event that serves as a structure to point the risk averse behaviour. Moreover, a positive experience with a clothing brand may decrease the normal result of refreshing data about substitutes and rivalry, subsequently making dedication in buy. In the process that helps the consumer to purchase a product, guided by the purposes behind consumer’s decision to make the purchase, looks for advice or data that will the consumer to establish the best decision, limiting the related risk of bad choice (Erdem & Swait, 1998).
The item is comprehended to be the sum of various attributes that empowers it to address the needs that provoked the buy of a product in any case. Depending upon the weight approved to each characteristic, the distinctive consumer buying behaviours, can be seen at different markets divided into different sections are produced. Hence, for organizations it is crucial to see how each potential buyer assesses an item’s properties and regarding to this what part does the clothing Brand play.
According to (Ubilaya, Foster, Lusk, ; Nilsson, 2011) (Hasan, Subhani, ; Osman, 2012) ; (Mohtar ; Abbas, 2014) It can be argued that the way towards choosing a product relies on the consumer’s choice of Banded or Non- Branded clothing products, in fact it is not that easy to establish the consumer’s behaviour, even with the particular attributes of an individual. (Klein, 2010) points out that despite the fact that some literature contains unfriendly vibes towards clothing brands, the desires created by the shopper regarding a clothing brand, with the awareness of qualities that it can give, it can convert the perception of characteristics and the book “unmarketing” by (Stratten, 2010) confirms that there is an actual connection between the brand and the perception of quality that can expand the trust in it.
After having knowledge about a brand, the consumer does not feel to consider extra information and buys the Branded clothing product that is known to him/her regardless of whether it has been brought down in quality (Hoyer ; Brown, 1990). This can be acceptable because the research cost related to update the knowledge of a competitors product is more prominent than the advantage that the buyer hopes to get accordingly (Ubilava 2011).
(Ubilaya, Foster, Lusk, ; Nilsson, 2011) Recent research has pointed out the issue with reference to the food sector or when buying green products (Schuitema ; De Groot, 2015) Therefore, to comprehend the elements that help us to understand the buying of an item by two classes of purchaser, i.e. brand devoted and non-brand devoted, confirming the significance of the products features (characteristics) and the advantages related with it, and in addition the qualities that the customer tries to accomplish through their buying behaviour.
History of local Clothing Brands in Pakistan
Pakistan may be thought to be an underdeveloped nation, however we are not in any manner in reverse in a significant number of the fields from science to art. The Fashion business in Pakistan is the most quickly developing industry giving an opportunity to companies for Brand openings. Clothing Brand industry of Pakistan is the most appealing progressive change in the present time.
A decade ago there was no awareness of clothing brand in Pakistan. Although there were known clothing brands like Gul Ahmad since 1953 but there was no awareness at that time so people did not see them as brands, they used to buy clothes from shops and consumers would choose from what the shops had to offer. But it was when print media, social media and advertising companies began to promote brands that the people became aware of the existing clothing brands in the market.
Today the competition between clothing brands is getting more intense everyday as clothing brands are increasing rapidly day by day. According to a research conducted there are more than 350 Brands in Pakistan. In recent times, the Pakistani lawn business has expanded into a number of countries, including Malaysia, UK, UAE, South America and even North and India .
In development of the local clothing brands in Pakistan the credit contribute to the fashion industry of Pakistan. In recent years, a lot of actions have been taken by the clothing brand industry to promote Pakistani fashion. This includes not only traditional wear but also modern dressing. Regardless of all the modern trends, the designers have not only directed towards the modern dresses but also have ensured Pakistani traditional wear is promoted. Within Pakistan, the Pakistani Fashion Design Council based in Lahore actively organizes Fashion Week in Lahore and Fashion Pakistan based in Karachi organizes fashion shows within Karachi .
As a result of these Fashion Weeks, the local clothing brands have been able to flourish and showcase their products. Moreover, a great number of new clothing brands have also been introduced by individuals who believe that the fashion industry of Pakistan provides good earning opportunities. These fashion advancements are not limited to Pakistan. The clothing Brand industry of Pakistan has introduced a lot of traditional wear into the international community as well. The clothing brand industry has become the cultural representative of our country. Our traditional outfits are also showcased in international fashion festivals.
Additionally, the Pakistani media, film industry and the internet have played an important role in making Pakistani trends known to the International community. There is a large number of Magazines, TV channels and portals that are focusing to work only on the Brand industry of Pakistan . Sunday, Brides and You, Mag the weekly and She magazine some of the well-known Pakistani fashion magazines . Additionally, Fashion Central, Style 360 and Fashion TV Pakistan are three well-reputed TV channels of Pakistan. Due to these advancements, Pakistan has been recognized by the International community through its fashion wear, fashion designers, models and stylists. The focus of the fashion industry of Pakistan is not only on the promotion of Pakistani clothing brands but it also provides platforms for the appreciation of designers, photographers, models and stylists. This is done in the form of awards where hard work and dedication are valued and appreciated. The Lux Style awards and Hum Awards are two big names that try to honor the efforts made by individuals.
In addition to business opportunities, a lot of educational opportunities with respect to fashion are also provided in Pakistan. Pakistan has a few schools dedicated to fashion studies. Three of the most commonly known schools are Pakistan Institute of Fashion and Design, National College of Arts, Indus Valley School of Arts and Architecture as well as Iqra University. These schools have been a success in housing and teaching major known names of the fashion industry. A lot of brand owners, models, stylists and designers have studied in Pakistani fashion schools and graduated to introduce well known and profitable brands. While considering all the platforms provided in Pakistan for the promotion of brands, it can be concluded that the fashion industry of Pakistan has a bright future both nationally and internationally.
The literature review is done while keeping in mind the youth preference about branded/unbranded clothes in Pakistani context and understanding the youth attitude and conduct about branded clothes and furthermore centered on the distinctive age branded clothes preferences.
According to (Antonio ; Savino, 2016) consumers dedicated to Brands appear happy and encouraged by brand presence throughout the process of choosing, while consumers that opt non-brand appear more constrained with their choosing process Non-Branded Products. The product which are not known in the market by its name are dealt with as a product and consumers are reluctant to choose such products. The products that are on low-inclusion zone, for example, pins, match box, bread etc. are purchased randomly else for other high-inclusion products zones Brand names are favored (McEnally ; De Chernatony, 1999). The decision to choose Un-Branded products, when the cost of the products is inexpensive and the consumer can get two more in the similar cost are additionally picked when the cost of the item is less expensive and you can get two more in a similar cost. Everything relies on the consumer’s personal belief, the perception quality, salary, reasonableness which moreover clarifies the existing conditions. ( (Parasuraman, Zeithaml, & Berry, 1885).
(Keller K. L., 1993) considered brand image as a deal of observation or relationship that are put into the memory of the consumer’s perception of a brand. An ongoing research by (Fennis, 2008) has shown that surrounding oneself in classy/ High-status brands during social interactions causes nonresistant behavior in a partner and influences the individual’s perception.
The term quality can be referred to as the power or greatness of a product whereas watched quality signifies the commonness and overall brilliance of an item by the buyer (Zeithaml, 1988). For (Syduzzaman, Rehman, Islam, Habib, & Ahmed, 2014), there is no single comprehensive meaning of quality, with a few people seeing quality as “execution to benchmarks”; others as” addressing the consumer needs” or “fulfilling the client.” According to these author’s, the best meanings of quality enclose “conformance to assurance”, “fitness for use”, “esteem for cost paid”, “support services”, and “psychological criteria”.
The main focal point of researchers in the field of branding is the Purchasing behavior of youthful customer especially youngsters. As per (Martin ; Bush, 2000) noticed that young consumers impact each other till the point at which they embrace specific ways of life, building devoted purchasing model that stays with them till their develop life and have nearly more payment control. Moreover (Bush et al., 2004) investigate that young people are determine and hunting down their own particular uniqueness. (Mohtar ; Abbas, 2014) addressed in their research that in the book of (Kolter, Wong, Saunders, ; Armstrong, 2005) they say that the youth have huge effect on their elders, youth are the main consumer purchasing gathering, in the overall population and are of enormous advantage for marketers (Kotler et al., 2005).
(Ajzen ; Fishbein, 1975) Theory of consumer behavior put extraordinary emphasis on the part of the product’s Characteristics, and product objectives, keeping in mind the end goal to comprehend the intentions in the shoppers’ decisions. The consumers of garments consider mainly the quality of a garment before purchasing it. The quality of womenswear is more particularly evaluated as compared to menswear. Women have a higher recognition than men with respect to evaluation of the quality characteristics of the two womenswear and menswear; and, Clothing customers, specifically shoppers of women products, just consider to buy such items in the event that they specifically have, style, texture quality and reasonable cost (Castelo ; Cabreal, 2017).
BRAND upgrades a person’s identity. Consumer anticipate that the Branded item will give them acknowledgment, fulfillment, and incentive for the cash contributed. Overview defines that there is a connection between the shopper’s wage and the fulfillment got from an obtained item. Individuals are value touchy and their final decision to perform a purchase relies greatly on their value/spending plan (Mittal ; Aggarwal, 2012). Consumer’s perception of a brand is improved by an increase in apparent quality and brought down by the opposite. The judgements made by consumers with respect to value can be influenced by the perceived quality associated with factors such as brand names and cost (Zeithaml, 1988). Consumers rely upon their reputation information to choose competing brands (O’Cass ; Lim, 2008).
The research of (Maran, Badrinarayanan, ; Kumar, 2017) shows that while considering wage factor and buy example of branded items, quality is the main aspect considered by the consumers followed by shading and configuration, style and comfort, and cost. The desire and fulfillment level towards the branded clothing had a positive relationship. According to the study, apparel is forming a basic part in performing of social gathering. Additionally, apparel is also seen as a critical method for non-verbal correspondence between individuals. (Keller K. L., 1993) argued that estimate of the brand should be credited to the “differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the promoting of the brand.
The project was constrained by time limit of 2 months
The study was restricted to Islamabad
The mind set of people depends on their age gender and income
Many respondents were not vocal in sharing their actual views
Respondents were very busy in their schedule. So it was very time consuming to get the questionnaire filled