UNIVERSITY OF THE FREE STATE
DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCES
The Civil War in South Sudan
Name: A.E Motsoane
Student number: 2017157724
Lecture: Dr. A Botha
Due date: 17 September 2018I declare that the enclosed assignment is my work, that I have acknowledged all my sources, and that I have not lent out my work to a fellow student.
A.E Motsoane 9/11/2018
Table of contents- The Civil War in South Sudan
The civil war in South Sudan
3.1 Curse from God
3.2 Conflict in South Sudan
3.3 Active groups since the split of the SPLA
3.3 Role of ethnicity
3.4 Role of natural resources
3.5 Supply of weapons to the Civilians
3.6 Garang’s supported models
3.7 Crisis in South Sudan
In 2011 Sudan gained its independence from Sudan and two years prior, war between president Saiva Kiir and former vice president Riek Machar started, caused by political disagreements between the two leaders. The war has been ongoing to this day, millions of civilians flee from their homes to countries nearby, running away from the civil war. This war has caused the nation its economy and left thousands of families torn apart, and millions dead or assassinated. (Jenssen.2017.pp1).
Civil war- A war between factions in the same country. (English dictionary).
A struggle between factions in the same country and result in activities organized by civilians for their own protection. (English dictionary).
On the first page of the assignment is the introduction to civil war, following pages is more content on civil war , a paragraph from “curse from God” , followed by a historical introduction to civil war and section 3 is active groups after le split of SPLA. Section 4 are the models by Garang that were supported, next on, how the civilians managed to get weapons during the war and then conclusion. Last page is the bibliography.
Curse from God.
Seen from the Western Upper Nile, Sudan’s seventeen years long affable war may be split into four basic phases. The first phase covers the instant pre-war for a long period of 365 days and was when the first groups of Nuer secessionists, revolutionists, first started preparing in the Upper Nile. At first these groups were working autonomously, gathering, step by step merged as the Anyanya movement, a name acquired from the Southern secessionists potency (Anyanya) that battled the legislature throughout Sudan’s civil war. The second phase goes through the 1983, when the SPLA rose as a getting things started multiethnic battling power in the fight with both the Sudanese furnished power and diverse government-bolstered northern and southern non-military personnel aimed forces, including separated bits of Anyanya II. In the midst of this stage, the SPLA experienced genuine military advances against the national government, meanwhile as a coherency irregularities internal to the improvement were crushing in all things considered. The third stage begins with Machar’s 1991 ‘overthrow’ and completes with his law making of formal peace simultaneously with the law making body in 1997. Uplifting South-on-South viciousness directed this stage, as for military pioneers and warlords turned their guns against each other’s entire customary natives. There was not much about mercilessness of this period. Those in a circumstance to manhandle regularly did that in that capacity, with little thought concerning the more expanded term results. The fourth and the last phase, concur with the subsequent unravelling of 1997 peace essential and affiliated impact between Nuer confrontations battling in the Western Upper Nile. Nuer standoffs were to an incredible stretch out of the affected and facilitated by the organization of Sudan in its confirmation to propel the brisk abuse of effectively found oil spares around there, critical non-military faculty based peace exercises, took after, and winning the respect to defusing earlier eases of danger between the Western Nuer and their Dinka neighbor. Between Nuer factional battling, regardless, has continued receiving in the Western Upper Nile into 2000. In my view, each of these stages passed on to the power particular structures and cases of viciousness. Furthermore, every of them stimulated radical reassessment of the quickening pros and extraordinary importance of this war as for an unquestionably injured and destroyed Nuer customary subject populace. (Hutchison, 2001: 301-10).
Historical Introduction conflict in South Sudan
South Sudan had been at war since 2013, when the President Slava Kiir blamed the deputy Riek Machar for plotting a coup. Nine countries voted in favor of the UN objective, with six other avoiding voting. The UN Nations Security Council has constrained an arms restriction on South Sudan, appropriate around five years after a ruinous regular war in the country started. The United-states drafted objectives won the base nine voters required, while six section states did without, watchful about voting for the measure amidst compliance undertakings to restore the South Sudan peace process. Us Ambassador to the UN Nikki Haley said the gathering of the objectives was crucial ‘to stop the violence, we need to stop the flood of weapons that outfitted social occasions are using to fight each other and to undermine the overall public’.
However, South Sudan’s UN ambassador Akuel Bona Malwal told the social affair the objectives would “undermine Sudan Ethiopia’s UN Ambassador Tekeda Alemu told the load up before the vote ordering the arms boycott would undermine the peace strategy and that the African Union and East African common alliance IGAD trust ‘how isn’t the reasonable time for taking such measures'”. China’s UN Ambassador, Mei Chaoxu, meanwhile said the chamber should have checked out African pioneers on the issue. In December 2016, a relative objective was brought before the UN Security Council by the US, anyway it didn’t get enough votes to inhale simple. The basic war in South Sudan started in 2013, two years after it got the opportunity from Sudan, when president Salva Kiir faulted his then operator Riek Machar for plotting on oust. Consistently, the conflict has expanded and doing combating has increased with more than twelve earing gatherings. Few months prior, the president Kiir and his advisory Riek Machar agreed to an “enduring” ceasefire, raising any wants for a peace to end their country’s staggering regular war.
A couple of ceasefires have in advance been harmed by the wearing social occasions. South Sudan had at first reserved choices this year, anyway the draining conflict has affected the timetable unfathomable as government and the confinement to try to detonate unobtrusive components of the peace deal. The country’s parliament voted in 2015 to grow Kiir’s present residency by three years, raising governance from the obstruction, which called the move illegal. The normal war has killed an enormous number of people and compelled millions to get away from their homes. Setting off a charitable crisis. Seven million South Sudanese, most of the people, will require sustenance help in 2018, according to the UN. It has furthermore cut the country’s crude oil creation which the governing body depends upon money, with yield not as much as a huge bit of its pre-war level of 245,000 barrels for every day. (JAZEERA & NEWS AGENCIES, 2018: 1-3).
Active groups since the split of the SPLA.
When the SPLA was split, violence extended over to the Western Upper Nile. In early days of September, with the war on-going, Dinka SPLA officer in the Bahr el Ghazal joined forces with Garang and started killing Nuer herders. Not long after the incident or killings, a mixed raiding part of Eastern Jikany and Lou Nuer recruited and civilians, led by Gordon Kong and a few more ex-Anyanya II leaders, started to seize control and responded to the attacks themselves. With the assistance of ‘SPLA Nasir’ military units, the Nuer fled to Bor Dinka dominion, Garang’s home land.
In 1993, Machar changed the name of his movement to ‘SPLA United’ when he was joined by Kerubino Kuayin Boi, a Dinka, and a few more of the SPLA officers that were able to run away from Garang’s political prison in Equatoria, but the multi ethnic unity did not last long. Kerubino left the union and started his own military group assisted by the government. On the other hand, Riek Machar, trying to reassemble his last forces, christened his movement as the ‘Southern Sudan Independence Army’ in 1994. (Hutchison, 2001:314-320).
Role of ethnicity in the conflict in South Sudan
The Dinka and the Nuer fought in opposition of the government in Khartoum for years, and their integration has been unresolved. This struggle between the internal leaders. John Garand (Dinka) and the deputy Riek Machar (Nuer), led to the crack of the SPLM in 1991, and the South Sudan civilians have been confined in the lead up tide of ethicized, South-on-South military violence. Riek Machar as well as the other high classified SPLM officers fought against their commander-in-chief, John Garang, the faction leaders turned away to establish a headstrong revolutionary movement, known as the ‘SPLA Nasir’ group. Respectively, this political break eventually sparked off a full-scale military head-to-head between the two largest ethnic factions in the South, the Dinka (Jieng) and the Nuer (Nai ti naah).
In terms October and November in 1991, Machar and Nuer joined forces and fled to Garang’s home land, the Bor Dinka Nation, assassinated hundreds of civilians and took over up to 70 percent of the Bor natives, and that came to be known as the ‘Bor massacre’ ( Human Rights Watch 1994:pp96-97). By leveling the score, Garang’s ‘SPLA-Mainstream’ forces fought back in response to the attacks by Nuer. Before long, the whole region was coned in a chaos of South-on-South ferocity that has been going on to obtain momentum into the present. These disastrous evolutions imprinted the start of a new phase of an existing long civili war, whereby North South disputes have previously prevailed. (cf.Daily&Sikainga.1993, Deng.1995, Harir&Tvedt.1994, Human Rights Watch.1999, Buay.1994.). (Hutchison, 2001:307-310).
Role of access of natural resources in the conflict in South Sudan
There are several contributors to the conflict in South Sudan. One being management or control of oil fields in Unity. The oil operations closed down their installations in Unity. The supply of weapons to the civilians by the SPLA, for protection of the community and from cattle raiders. (Skinner.S.2012.Civilian disarmament in South Sudan, A legacy struggle. Pp1-10).Civilians in Bor Dinka were facing famine as almost all of their livestock was slaughtered and stolen. Bor civilians were attacked and earmarked recruits and civilians that the Bor Dinka civilians gained more from the cattle resources prior, extracted by Dinka SPLA officers in Nuer areas. (Hutchison, 2001: 307-320)
Garang’s supported models
South Sudanese hurtful path to statehood rotated around the contested hope for unity or separation. In the final decade of the CPA peace process, it was clear to the SLPM’s Security General Pegan Amum, that the complete fight for an integrated New Sudan was no longer feasible. By the January referendum, integration was a fake idea in Southern Sudan that gestured, yielding, utilizing, when separation pealed as accredited and discharging. As the SPLM’s referendum advocacy material extolled; ‘ Vote for separation, vote for freedom’. Although the SPLM could have turned its objectives over time, Garang’s order of ‘models’ prioritizing integration greatly impacted the CPA peace process through the interim period. That time would manifest a worrying and complicated circumstance for Sudanese but it culminated the debate that unwind over years of war since Sudan’s independence.
The SPLM constitutional commitment to the unity of the Sudan’s underpinned its involvement in the CPA’s implementations, throughout that time it never waved about the Southern right to self-determination. Regardless of Garang’s hopes for a CPA-instigated New Sudan, several were amazed that Soth Sudanese nearly and undividedly picked separation. In a poll the Carter Center announced as specifying ‘overwhelming popular support for the secession of Southern Sudan’. To make their decision most of Southerners would contend that they do not need a six-year interim period to decide, they have seen that integration with the North might never be striking because Khartoum may not make it. ( Arnold & LeRiche, 2012: 307-308).
The crisis in South Sudan
Saira Kiir Mayaidit, THE PRESIDENT of the Republic of South Sudan appeared on TV on the 16th of Dcember 2013. In military uniform to announce that he had put down topple try in the capital, Juba. The resentful undertaking was said to be driven by previous vice president Riek Machar and a couple of ex-authority ministers and officials of the choice Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) , including Madame Rebecca Myading de Mabior, the matron of the SPLM’s first pioneer, John Garang. Eleven alleged topple plotters were caught in their homes, yet Riek Machar made tracks in an opposite direction from Juba, and, amidst reports oil through the accompanying couple of extended lengths of centered killings of Nuer in Juba by man in uniform loyal to the president, army divisions of Sudan People’s Liberation Movement in Jonglei state capitals for Bor and Bentiu. In the telephonic interviews from secure spots Riek Machar denied that he had been revoked in with a bombshell yet then requested that he equipped power topple Salva Kiir and detailed his plans to march on Juba. Regardless of the way that the caught pastors started from an arrangement of systems transversely finished South Sudan. Western media reports cast the political of the conspiracy. Several government that were friendly agreed to it straightforward. For the emancipation of the eleven prisoners, there was a strong international pressure. There was a combat during the next month, for supervision of Bor, Bentui, and Makal (the capitals of Jonglei, Unity as well as the Upper Nile nations) and the oil area in Unity. In Unity, the oil establishments closed down their installations and extracted their workers. As the forces said to be faithful to Riek Machar were drawn mainly from abandoned units in the three nations and a few aimed civilian Nuer groups from Jonglei, the legislative acquired military help from Uganda and the SPLA North as well as Justice and Equity Movement (JEM) forces in revolution against Khartoum in neighboring Blue Nile and South Kordofan countries. An IGAD-brokered suspensions of malicious consent on23 January was a result of international pressure on both the legislative and the protesters, though this proved to be an accordance on paper only with no instant allocation for monitoring on the ground. By the beginning of February close to 750, 000 people were guessed to have been displaced by the combat in Juba and three other countries, in the composite of the UN mission in the Republic of South Sudan, 88.200 people were looking for security and above 130,000 were estimated to have run away to nearest countries, including Sudan. Guesstimated deaths have varied expansively from 1,000 to 100 00. (Johnson, 2014: 1-10).
Supply of weapons to civilians
Civilians needed weapons for security and there are several reasons to look at as to how weapons handed in the hands of the civilians, for example the SALW (small arms and light weapons). Small arms are weapons made for private use and may include: light machine guns, sub-machine guns, machine pistol, fully automatic rifles, assault rifles, automatic rifles included. Light weapons are ammunitions that are used by a few people especially in a group or as a group. Examples are, machine guns, automatic cannons, howitzers, grenade launches, anti-tank weapons and launches, recoilless guns, shoulder fired rockets, anti-aircraft weapons and launches and air defense weapons.
In the hands of the civilians, it was guessed that there was about 1.9 and 3.2 million small arms in course, preceding the separation of Sudan and South Sudan. The first provenience of ammunition to the civilians during the civil war (specifically the second civil war) was the legislature and or military, for different causes. For example, in Lake Countries, the SPLA supplied weapons to the cattle herders for them to safeguard themselves as well as the communities from people that steal cattle. The gaweng, aiming of these groups, enabled the SPLA to move their focus and endeavor from community safety to the existing war within the North. Another example of the weapon provenience is the aiming of Southern revolution groups in Unity State by the Khartoum executives. The Sudanese executive allegedly aimed Missariya, in addition to militia groups like Paulino Matiep’s aimed movement and the SSDF conducted by Riek Machar and Lam Achol. Supplying weapons to militia groups was productive process to involve the SPLA by proxy, for that reason, weakening and making sure that the SPLA/M does not become more powerful.
According to the direct provision of arms to the civilians, the sale and/or leakage of weapons is another source of small arms in South Sudan from soldiers to civilian on daily basis. (Skinner, 2012:4-5).
South Sudan gained it independence after six years from Sudan. The civil War caused more harm in the country, the civilians are the significant victims of the civil war and the war has been going on to this day. South Sudan is said to be the most violent countries in the world, the conflict resulted in many of the civilians fleeing from their home to countries nearby. Hundreds of people were killed in South Sudan and the situation is still not stabilsed. (Jenssen.T.2018: internet)
Arnold.M & LeRiche M. 2012, South Sudan From Revolution to Independence .UK: C Hurst. Pp1-2.
Hutchison. E.S. 2012, A curse from God? Religious and Political dimensions of the post-1991 rise of violence in South Sudan.pp309-10.
JAZEERA. A.L & NEWS AGENCIES. 2018. UN Security Council imposes embargo on South Sudan. 13 July.pp1-3.
Johnson.D.H.2014.African Affairs Advance Access.10.pp1-10.